200 Belgian Francs banknote 1995 Adolphe Sax

Belgium Banknotes 200 Belgian Francs banknote 1995 Adolphe Sax
Belgium Money Currency 200 Belgian Francs banknote 1995 Saxophone players, Dinant with the Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame
Belgium Banknotes 200 Belgian Francs banknote 1995 Adolphe Sax
National Bank of Belgium - Nationale Bank van België - Banque nationale de Belgique

Obverse: Portrait of musical instrument designer and musician (clarinetist), Adolphe Sax (1814-1894), best known for inventing the saxophone. Musical notes. Saxophone.
Reverse: Saxophone players; Dinant with the Collegiate Church of Notre Dame de Dinant and the Citadel of Dinant above it. Watermark: Effigy of Adolphe Sax and his personal autograph.
Work by: Monique Golaire (front); Kenneth Ponsaers (back) (Inv. - Sketch authors, designers); Benoît Gregoire (Sculp. - Engraver).
Main colours: Yellow, green and orange.
Signatures: Serge Bertholomé (De Schatbewaarder - Le Tresorier - Der Schatzmeister); Alfons Verplaetse (De Gouverneur - Le Gouverneur - Der Gouverneur).
Date of issue: 25 Jan. 1996.
Dimensions: 144 x 76 mm.

Texts: Nationale Bank van Belgie. Tweehonderd Frank. Banque Nationale de Belgique. Deux Cents Francs.
Belgische Nationalbank. Zweihundert Franken. National Bank of Belgium. Two Hundred Francs.

Belgian banknotes - Belgium paper money
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Adolphe Sax
Antoine-Joseph Sax, also called Adolphe Sax (born Nov. 6, 1814, Dinant, Belgium - died Feb. 7, 1894, Paris, France), was a Belgian inventor and musician who invented the saxophone in the early 1840s (patented in 1846). He played the flute and clarinet. He also invented the saxotromba, saxhorn and saxtuba.

Adolphe Sax - Early life
Adolphe Sax - Career

Adolphe Sax - Early life
Antoine-Joseph Sax was born on 6 November 1814, in Dinant, in what is now Belgium, to Charles-Joseph Sax and his wife. While his given name was Antoine, he was referred to as Adolphe from childhood. His father and mother were instrument designers themselves, who made several changes to the design of the French horn. Adolphe began to make his own instruments at an early age, entering two of his flutes and a clarinet into a competition at the age of 15. He subsequently studied performance on those two instruments as well as voice at the Royal Conservatory of Brussels.

Sax faced many near-death experiences. Over the course of his childhood, he:

 - fell from a height of three floors, hit his head on a stone and could barely stand afterwards,
 - at the age of three, drank a bowl full of vitriolized water and later swallowed a pin,
 - burnt himself seriously in a gunpowder explosion,
 - fell onto a hot cast iron frying pan, burning his side,
 - survived poisoning and suffocation in his own bedroom where varnished items were kept during the night,
 - was hit on the head by a cobblestone, and
 - fell into a river and barely survived.

His mother once said that "he's a child condemned to misfortune; he won't live." His neighbors called him "little Sax, the ghost".

Adolphe Sax - Career
After leaving the Royal Conservatory of Brussels, Sax began to experiment with new instrument designs, while his parents continued to make conventional instruments to bring in money. Adolphe's first important invention was an improvement of the bass clarinet design, which he patented at the age of 24. Sax relocated permanently to Paris in 1841 and began working on a new set of instruments which he exhibited there in 1844. These were valved bugles, and although he had not invented the instrument itself, his examples were much more successful than those of his rivals and became known as saxhorns. They came in seven different sizes, and paved the way for the creation of the flugelhorn. Today, saxhorns are sometimes used in concert bands and orchestras. The saxhorn also laid the groundwork for the modern euphonium.
  Sax also developed the saxotromba family, valved brass instruments with narrower bore than the saxhorns, in 1845, though they survived only briefly.
  The use of saxhorns spread rapidly. The saxhorn valves were accepted as state-of-the-art in their time and remain largely unchanged today. The advances made by Adolphe Sax were soon followed by the British brass band movement which exclusively adopted the saxhorn family of instruments. The Jedforest Instrumental Band formed in 1854 and The Hawick Saxhorn Band formed in 1855, within the Scottish Borders, a decade after saxhorn models became available.
  The period around 1840 saw Sax inventing the clarinette-bourdon, an early unsuccessful design of contrabass clarinet. Around this time he also developed the instrument for which he is best known: the saxophone which he patented on 28 June 1846. The saxophone was invented for use in both orchestras and military bands. By 1846 Sax had designed (on paper at least) a full range of saxophones (from sopranino to subcontrabass). Composer Hector Berlioz wrote approvingly of the new instrument in 1842, but despite his support, saxophones never became standard orchestral instruments. However, their ability to play technical passages easily like woodwinds and also project loudly like brass instruments led them to be included in military bands in France and elsewhere. The saxophone was Sax's signature accomplishment and created his reputation more than any other. This helped secure him a job teaching at the Paris Conservatory in 1857.
  Sax continued to make instruments later in life and presided over the new saxophone program at the Paris Conservatory. Rival instrument makers both attacked the legitimacy of his patents and were sued by Sax for patent infringement. The legal back-and-forth continued for over 20 years. He was driven into bankruptcy twice: in 1856 and again in 1873.
  Sax suffered from lip cancer between 1853 and 1858 but made a full recovery. In 1894 Sax died in complete poverty in Paris and was interred in section 5 (Avenue de Montebello) at the Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris.

The saxophone (also referred to as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. Like the clarinet, saxophones have holes in the instrument which the player closes using a system of key mechanisms. When the player presses a key, a pad either covers a hole or lifts off a hole, lowering or raising the pitch, respectively.
  The saxophone family was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in 1840. Adolphe Sax wanted to create a group or series of instruments that would be the most powerful and vocal of the woodwinds, and the most adaptive of the brass instruments, that would fill the vacant middle ground between the two sections. Mr. Sax patented the saxophone on June 28, 1846, in two groups of seven instruments each. Each series consisted of instruments of various sizes in alternating transposition. The series pitched in B♭ and E♭, designed for military bands, have proved popular and most saxophones encountered today are from this series. Instruments from the so-called "orchestral" series, pitched in C and F, never gained a foothold, and the B♭ and E♭ instruments have now replaced the C and F instruments when the saxophone is used in an orchestra.
  The saxophone is used in classical music (such as concert bands, chamber music, solo repertoire, and, occasionally, orchestras), military bands, marching bands, and jazz (such as big bands and jazz combos). The saxophone is also used as a soloing and melody instrument or as a member of a horn section in some styles of rock and roll and popular music. Saxophone players are called saxophonists.

Saxophone History
The saxophone was developed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian instrument maker, flautist, and clarinetist. Born in Dinant and originally based in Brussels, he moved to Paris in 1842 to establish his musical instrument business. Prior to his work on the saxophone, he had made several improvements to the bass clarinet by improving its keywork and acoustics and extending its lower range. Sax was also a maker of the then-popular ophicleide, a large conical brass instrument in the bass register with keys similar to a woodwind instrument. His experience with these two instruments allowed him to develop the skills and technologies needed to make the first saxophones. As an outgrowth of his work improving the bass clarinet, Sax began developing an instrument with the projection of a brass instrument and the agility of a woodwind. He wanted it to overblow at the octave, unlike the clarinet, which rises in pitch by a twelfth when overblown. An instrument that overblows at the octave has identical fingering for both registers.
  Sax created an instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece like a clarinet, conical brass body like an ophicleide, and some acoustic properties of both the horn and the clarinet.
  Having constructed saxophones in several sizes in the early 1840s, Sax applied for, and received, a 15-year patent for the instrument on June 28, 1846. The patent encompassed 14 versions of the fundamental design, split into two categories of seven instruments each, and ranging from sopranino to contrabass. Although the instruments transposed at either F or C have been considered "orchestral", there is no evidence that Sax intended this. As only three percent of Sax's surviving production were pitched in F and C, and as contemporary composers used the E♭ alto and B♭ bass saxophone freely in orchestral music, it is almost certain that Sax experimented to find the most suitable keys for these instruments, settling upon instruments alternating between E♭ and B♭ rather than those pitched in F or C, for reasons of tone and economy (the saxophones were the most expensive wind instruments of their day). The C soprano saxophone was the only instrument to sound at concert pitch. All the instruments were given an initial written range from the B below the treble staff to the F, one space above the three ledger lines above staff, giving each saxophone a range of two and a half octaves.
  Sax's patent expired in 1866; thereafter, numerous saxophonists and instrument manufacturers implemented their own improvements to the design and keywork. The first substantial modification was by a French manufacturer who extended the bell slightly and added an extra key to extend the range downwards by one semitone to B♭. It is suspected that Sax himself may have attempted this modification. This extension is now commonplace in almost all modern designs, along with other minor changes such as added keys for alternate fingerings. Using alternate fingerings allows a player to play faster and more easily. A player may also use alternate fingerings to bend the pitch. Some of the alternate fingerings are good for trilling, scales, and big interval jumps.
  Sax's original keywork, which was based on the Triebert system 3 oboe for the left hand and the Boehm clarinet for the right, was simplistic and made playing some legato passages and wide intervals extremely difficult to finger, so numerous developers added extra keys and alternate fingerings to make chromatic playing less difficult. While early saxophones had two separate octave vents to assist in the playing of the upper registers just as modern instruments do, players of Sax's original design had to operate these via two separate octave keys operated by the left thumb. A substantial advancement in saxophone keywork was the development of a method by which the left thumb operates both tone holes with a single octave key, which is now universal on modern saxophones. Further developments were made by Selmer in the 1930s and 1940s, including offsetting tone holes and a revamping of the octave key mechanism, beginning with balanced action instruments and continuing through their celebrated Mark VI line. One of the most radical, however temporary, revisions of saxophone keywork was made in the 1950s by M. Houvenaghel of Paris, who completely redeveloped the mechanics of the system to allow a number of notes (C♯, B, A, G, F and E♭) to be flattened by a semitone simply by pressing the right middle finger. This enables a chromatic scale to be played over two octaves simply by playing the diatonic scale combined with alternately raising and lowering this one digit. However, this keywork never gained much popularity, and is no longer in use.

Collegiate Church of Notre Dame de Dinant
The Collegiate Church of Our Lady (French: Collégiale Notre Dame de Dinant) is a 13th-century Gothic cathedral in Dinant, a city in Waloon Belgium, on the banks of the River Meuse. The collegiate church replaced a 10th-century Romanesque church which collapsed in 1228, leaving only the North door. Its most iconic part is the separate 16th century pear-shaped bell tower.

Citadel of Dinant
The Citadel of Dinant (French: Citadelle de Dinant) is a fortress located in the Walloon city of Dinant in the province of Namur, Belgium. The current fort was built in 1815 on a site which was originally fortified in 1051 when the region was ruled by the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The citadel overlooks the city of Dinant and the strategic Meuse river which runs through the town. It is open to the public.
Together with Huy, Liège and Namur, the Citadel of Dinant forms part of the so-called Meuse Citadels.

Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur. It is around 90 kilometres (56 mi) south-east of Brussels, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south-east of Charleroi, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Namur and 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Givet (France).
  The municipality includes the old communes of Anseremme, Bouvignes-sur-Meuse, Dréhance, Falmagne, Falmignoul, Foy-Notre-Dame, Furfooz, Lisogne, Sorinnes, and Thynes.

  Dinant is positioned in the Upper Meuse valley at a point where the river cuts deeply into the western Condroz plateau. Sited in a steep sided valley between the rock face and the river, the original settlement had little space to grow away from the river, and it therefore grew, into a long thin town on a north-south axis along the river shore. During the 19th century the former Île des Batteurs (Drummers' Island) to the south was attached directly to the town when a branch of the river was filled in.
  Dinant has been enriched by the agricultural opportunities presented by the fertility of the land on the plateau that overlooks it. Within the town, brassware production is a traditional craft that has benefited from the presence of the broad and, at this point, easily navigable river which has provided for easy delivery of the raw materials and ready distribution of the resulting products emerging from the artisans' workshops. Another traditional source of wealth is provided by the limestone cliffs overlooking the town, which supported a high-end quarrying industry, producing black marble and bluestone, with the proximity of a relatively wide and deep navigable river facilitating distribution.