1000 Belgian Francs banknote 1997 Constant Permeke

Belgium Banknotes 1000 Belgian Francs banknote 1998 painter and sculptor Constant Permeke
Belgium Money Currency 1000 Belgian Francs banknote 1998 "Lying farmer" (Liggende Boer) by Constant Permeke
Belgium Banknotes 1000 Belgian Francs banknote 1998 Constant Permeke
National Bank of Belgium - Nationale Bank van België - Banque nationale de Belgique

  The 1000 Franc note pays tribute to Constant Permeke was a prominent Belgian painter and sculptor who played a leading role in Flemish Expressionism movement. The pictures on the note clearly refer to the portrayed artist’s life and works.

Obverse: Portrait of a Belgian painter and sculptor Constant Permeke and his signature below it (1886 - 1952) and a fishing boat against thee-lined coastline. Stylised modernist building (Permeke museum) as a see-through security feature. The accuracy of the printing can be checked by looking at the picture of the Permeke museum against the light. The coloured areas on the face fit exactly with those on the back.
The home and studio of Constant Permeke at Jabbeke, near Bruges, now a Permeke museum (he called his home De Vier Windstreken: 'The Four Corners of the Earth').

Reverse: The Sleeping Peasant, Charcoal on paper by Constant Permeke, 1928-1929. At the right side of the 1000-franc note depicted details of the painting "Harvest" by Constant Permeke, 1924-1925, Tate Gallery London.

Watermark: The watermark is a finely drawn portrait of Constant Permeke with his very distinctive signature. Anything which appears dark when the watermark is held to the light, becomes light when the note is placed on an opaque surface.

Signatures: Serge Bertholomé, Treasurer (De Schatbewaarder - Le Tresorier - Der Schatzmeister); Alfons "Fons", Viscount Verplaetse, Belgian economist and former Governor of the National Bank of Belgium (NBB) from 1989 until 1999 (De Gouverneur - Le Gouverneur - Der Gouverneur).
Main colors: Brown-violet on multicolored underprint.
Work by: Kenneth Ponsaers and V. Boland (front); Kenneth Ponsaers and Nathalie Paquot (back) (Inv. - Sketch authors, designers); Patricia Vouez (Sculptor. - Engraver).
Date of issue: 24 April 1997.
Actual measurements: 154 x 76 mm.

Texts: Nationale Bank van Belgie. Duizend Frank. Banque Nationale de Belgique. Mille Francs. Belgische Nationalbank. Tausend Franken. National Bank of Belgium. One Thousand Francs.

Belgian banknotes - Belgium paper money
1994-2001 Issue

100 Francs       200 Francs       500 Francs       1000 Francs  

2000 Francs        10000 Francs

Constant Permeke
Constant Permeke (31 July 1886 – 4 January 1952) was a Belgian painter and sculptor who is considered the leading figure of Flemish expressionism.
   Permeke was born in Antwerp but when he was six years old the family moved to Ostend, where his father became curator of the Municipal Museum of Arts. Permeke went to school in Bruges from 1903 until 1906, when he was drafted into the Belgian army. He served in a university company with whom he settled in Sint-Martens-Latem. After his military service ended in March 1908, Permeke returned to Ostend where he roomed together with another artist, Gustave De Smet but in 1909 he returned to Latem where he lived as a recluse. His work of this period is characterized by his heavy brush. In 1912 Permeke married Maria Delaere and the newlyweds settled in Ostend. His work from this period gains its expressive force through muted tonality and brutal forms.
   When World War I started, Permeke was mobilized and during the defense of Antwerp he was wounded in action near the town of Duffel. His wounds forced him to be evacuated to the United Kingdom where he was in hospital at South Hillwood. After his release from hospital he was reunited with his family in Folkestone, where his son John was born. In 1916 he moved to Chardstock in Devonshire and started painting again, mostly colorful English landscapes. After the end of the war, the Permeke family returned to Ostend in 1919. In contrast to the happy time in Devonshire, the harsh reality of the worker's life turned Permeke's work back to a gloomier mood as he mainly painted the harsh fisherman's life.
   In 1921 Permeke was able to exhibit his work in Antwerp and in Paris. Between 1922 and 1924, Permeke regularly went to Astene, in order to cooperate with Frits Van den Berghe. In 1926 Permeke went to Vevey in Switzerland where he mainly painted mountain scenes. In 1929 he moved to Jabbeke. During this period he changed his subject: instead of the fisherman and the sea he now focused on the farmer and his land. During this period, Permeke was enormously productive with works like "Gouden Oogst" (1935), "De Grote Marine" (1935), "Moederschap" (1936), "Het Afscheid" (1948), "Dagelijks Brood" (1950). Starting in 1937 Permeke tried his hand at sculpting as well. As a sculptor, Permeke tried to isolate the human figure in monumental efforts. "De Zaaier" (1939), "Niobe" (1946) and "De Drie Gratiën" (1949) are good examples of this period.
   During World War II, Permeke was forbidden to paint by the German occupiers as his art was seen by them as Entartete Kunst. Privately, things were even worse as his son Paul was arrested and sent to Germany as a forced labourer. After the war, Permeke was appointed director of the National higher Institute and of the Royal Academy in Antwerp but after only one year he offered his resignation. In 1947–1948, Permeke had a big retrospective exhibition in Paris but his happiness at the return of his son was soon shattered when in 1948 his wife died. Emotionally scarred and ailing, Permeke had to be nursed by his daughter.
   During the last period of his life his work mellowed somewhat as it shows much more refinement in drawing and colors. His last works are "De dame met de rode handschoenen" (1951) and some landscapes painted in Brittany. After his trip to there in 1951, his health declined even further and he became bedridden.
   Constant Permeke died on 4 January 1952. Four days later he was buried next to his wife at the cemetery in Jabbeke. On the grave of his beloved wife was placed a statue which Permeke had commissioned by his friend George Minne.
   In 1997, Belgium recognized Permeke's achievements by dedicating the 1,000 franc (~ 25 euro) bill to him and his work. The bill was used until Belgium adopted the euro in 2002.