Spain 500 Pesetas banknote 1946 Francisco de Vitoria

Spain banknotes 500 Pesetas note 1946 Francisco de Vitoria
Spain currency 500 Pesetas banknote 1946 Salamanca
Spain 500 Pesetas, 19.2.1946. P-132s. Banco de Espana 

Obverse: Portrait of Francisco de Vitoria.
Reverse: Plateresque style facade of the University of Salamanca.
Watermark: Head of Francisco de Vitoria.

Specimen printed by FNMT (Fabrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre - National Coinage and Stamp Factory). Overprinted "Muestra," at face with solid zero serial number.
Engraved by Jos y Alfonso López Sánchez Toda.
Size: 146 x 96 mm.
Quantity Printed: 3011800.
Circulation: December 30, 1949.

Spain Banknotes
1946 Issue

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Spanish Currency - 500 Pesetas

Francisco de Vitoria
Francisco de Vitoria (or Victoria), OP (c. 1483, Burgos – 12 August 1546, Salamanca), was a Spanish Renaissance Roman Catholic philosopher, theologian and jurist, founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the School of Salamanca, noted especially for his contributions to the theory of just war and international law. He has in the past been described by some scholars as the "father of international law", though contemporary academics have suggested that such a description is anachronistic, since the concept of international law did not truly develop until much later. American jurist Arthur Nussbaum noted that Vitoria was "the first to set forth the notions (though not the terms) of freedom of commerce and freedom of the seas." Because of Vitoria's conception of a "republic of the whole world" (res publica totius orbis) he recently has been labeled "founder of global political philosophy". Still, Vitoria is called one of the founders of international law along with Francisco Suárez, Alberico Gentili, and Hugo Grotius.

Defense of Amerindians
A noted scholar, he was publicly consulted by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. He worked to limit the type of power the Spanish empire imposed on the Native Peoples. He said, "The upshot of all the preceding is this, then, that the aborigines undoubtedly had true dominion in both public and private matters, just like Christians, and that neither their princes nor private persons could be despoiled of their property on the ground of their not being true owners." Vitoria denied that the native peoples could be understood as slaves by nature in Aristotelian terms. He adopted from Aquinas the Roman law concept of ius gentium ("the law of nations"). His defense of American Indians was based on a Scholastic understanding of the intrinsic dignity of man, a dignity he found being violated by Spain's policies in the New World.
  In three lectures (relectiones) held between 1537 and 1539 Vitoria concluded that the Indians were rightful owners of their property and that their chiefs validly exercised jurisdiction over their tribes. This had already been the position of Palacios Rubios. Neither the pope nor Charles V had a rightful claim over Indian lives or property. No violent action could be taken against them, nor could their lands or property be seized, unless the Indians had caused harm or injury to the Spanish by violating the latter’s lawful rights.
  A supporter of the just war theory, in De iure belli Francisco pointed out that the underlying predicate conditions for a "just war" were "wholly lacking in the Indies". The only area where he saw justification for Spanish intervention in native affairs was to protect victims seized for human sacrifice, and because of the inherent human dignity of the victims themselves—whose rights were being violated and thus in need of defense.
  Thomas E. Woods goes on to describe how some wished to argue that the natives lacked reason, but the evidence was against this because the natives had obvious customs, laws, and a form of government.
  The Spaniards were in the practice of invoking in their American conquests the so-called "Requerimiento", a document read to the Indians before the commencement of any hostilities. The "Requerimiento", declared the universal authority of the Pope, and the authority the Spanish monarchs had received from the Pope over this part of the New World for the purpose of colonizing and evangelizing it. The Indians had to accept the sovereignty of the Spanish monarchs or be compelled to submit by force. Vitoria denied the legitimacy of this document.
  His works are known only from his lecture notes, as he has published nothing in his lifetime. Nevertheless, his influence such as that on the Dutch legal philosopher Hugo Grotius was significant. Relectiones XII Theologicae in duo libros distinctae was published posthumously (Antwerp, 1604).
  Francisco de Vitoria's writings have been interpreted by various scholars to support contrary policies. Antony Anghie and others argue that Vitoria’s humanitarianism legitimized conquest.

University of Salamanca
The construction of the University of Salamanca began in 1411 by order of Pope Benedicto XIII, The Moon Pope. It is the oldest university of Spain, and one of the most representative examples of the Spanish plateresque style. It was completed in 1218 under the direction of Alfonso IX, but it was not made an actual university until Alfonso X, The Wise One, assigned faculty to it in 1254.
Pope Alexander IV called the University of Salamanca "one of the four torches of the world." The 40,000-book library on the top floor can symbolize Salamanca's immortality, uniting it to the world of literature and art. Having passed through the library include important personalities such as Fray Luis of Leon, Nebrija, Francisco Vitoria, Cervantes, Mendez Valdez, Saint Juan of the Cross, Miguel of Unamuno, Torrente Ballester and many others.
The most important exterior aspect of the university is the facade seen above. It faces the "Patio de Escuelas," which has a statue of fray Luis de Leon. He was a poet and professor of Theology at the University. The outside of the university was constructed in what is known in Spanish as "gotico plateresco." This means that it is a gothic architectural style with an abundance of detail.
The facade has three levels. (1) The bottom has a large medallion with the Catholic King and Queen, Ferdinand and Isabella. With their images is a Greek inscription that reads "The Kings to the University, and This One to Them. They are considered the protectors of the university. (2) In the center, are the imperial shield of Charles V, and in its superior the figure of the Pope with two cardinals. The most noted attribute of the middle level is the frog on the right-hand column. (3) The third level has a figure of Benedicto XIII in the center.
Look close to see the frog for good luck! Legend says that if you can find the frog, you will have good luck. In reality, the frog is a symbol of sin. It is characterized by the plateresque carving because it seems to get larger as it gets higher, and it looks real. Look closely on the column, on the left side of the bottom ledge, on top of the skull.