Spain money 500 Pesetas banknote 1971 Jacint Verdaguer

Spain currency money 500 Pesetas banknote Verdaguer
Spain 500 pesetas
Spain currency money 500 Pesetas Mount Canigo Village of Vignolas d'Oris
500 Spanish pesetas note
Spain money 500 Pesetas banknote of 1971, issued by the Bank of Spain - El Banco de España.
Spanish Currency, Spanish peseta, Spanish banknotes, Spanish paper money, Spanish bank notes, Spain banknotes, Spain paper money, Spain bank notes, Billetes de España, Pesetas Billetes Españoles.

Obverse: Portrait of the poet Jacint Verdaguer, engraved by Antonio Manso Fernández.
Signatures: Luis Coronel de Palma, Marqués de Tejada (Governor - El Gobernador, September 1951 - December 1963); José Gallego Adrados (The Auditor - El Interventor); José Luis Artigas Cía (Cashier - El Cajero).
Reverse: Mount Canigou (Monte Conigó) and a small village Vernet-les-Bains in southern France, inspiration of the poet (on average, 300 days of sunshine every year). Vignette engraved by Daniel Carande.

Watermark: Jacint Verdaguer.
Dimensions: 144 x 86 mm.
Date of Issue: 23 July 1971 (in circulation from December 19, 1973)
Printer: Fabrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre, Spain (FNMT).

Spanish Currency - 500 Pesetas

Jacint Verdaguer
Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (May 17, 1845 – June 10, 1902) was a Spanish writer, regarded as one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature and a prominent literary figure of the Renaixença, a cultural revival movement of the late Romantic era. The bishop Josep Torras i Bages, one of the main figures of Catalan nationalism, called him the "Prince of Catalan poets". He was also known as mossèn (Father) Cinto Verdaguer, because of his career as a priest, and informally also simply "mossèn Cinto" (with Cinto being a short form of Jacint).

He was born in Folgueroles, a town on the Plain of Vic, in the comarca of Osona (Province of Barcelona) to a modest family who valued learning. His father, Josep Verdaguer i Ordeix (Tavèrnoles, 1817 – Folgueroles, 1876), was a brickmason and farmer. His mother, Josepa Santaló i Planes (Folgueroles, 1819–1871), a housewife and farmer, was to exercise great influence over young Jacint, as she conveyed to him a love of literature, especially poetry, and was a deeply religious woman. He was the third of eight children, only three of whom survived. In 1855, at the age of 10, he entered the Seminary of Vic, as was expected for a child who was not the first-born under the system of primogeniture and had to make his livelihood without relying on an inheritance. Until then, he had lived like the other children in his town. The anecdotes told about him show that he stood out from his peers for his intelligence, astuteness and courage, as well as his athletic constitution. He displayed a balanced attitude without any apparent religious inclinations.
  In 1863, when he was 18, he started to work as a tutor for a family at the Can Tona masia (where he also helped out on the farm), while he continued to study. Can Tona is in the municipal district of Sant Martí de Riudeperes, today Calldetenes (Osona). In 1865, he participated in Barcelona's Jocs Florals—or "Floral Games"—poetry contest and won four prizes. The next year he won two prizes in the same Jocs Florals.
  On September 24, 1870, he was ordained a priest by the bishop Lluís Jordà in Vic, and in October that same year, he said his first Mass, in the Sant Jordi hermitage. The next day he said his second Mass in the Sant Francesc hermitage near Vic. In 1871, his mother died (January 17) at the age of 52. On September 1 he was appointed bishop coadjutor of the small town of Vinyoles d'Orís and three days later he took up his charge.
  In 1873, he published the cant (ode or song) "Passió de Nostre Senyor Jesucrist" (Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ). He left Vinyoles d'Orís for health reasons and moved to Vic. He went on a trip to Roussillon and saw the mountain, El Canigó, possibly for the first time. In December, he joined the Companyia Transatlàntica trans-Atlantic steamship company as a chaplain because he was prescribed sea air for his health; he embarked in Cádiz bound for Havana.
  On September 8, 1876, his father died at the age of 65. On board the "Ciudad Condal", on the return voyage from Cuba, Jacint Verdaguer finished his epic poem L'Atlàntida. In November he entered the palace of the Marquis of Comillas as an alms chaplain.
  In 1877, when he was 32, and having returned from his journey, the jury of the Jocs Florals awarded him the special prize of the Diputation of Barcelona for L'Atlàntida. Now he had earned his reputation as a poet.
  In 1878, he traveled to Rome, where he was granted an audience with Pope Leo XIII. They discussed Verdaguer's poem L'Atlàntida. In 1880, as the winner of three prizes in the Jocs Florals, he was proclaimed "Master of the Gay Sciences" (Mestre en Gai Saber). That same year he published his book of poetry, Montserrat, which included "Llegenda de Montserrat", a legend (or two) in the form of a poem with 13 cantos.
  In 1883, the Barcelona City Council published a print-run of a hundred thousand copies of his "Oda a Barcelona" (Ode to Barcelona), a 46-stanza poem. Such a print-run was quite a remarkable given that the population of Barcelona at the time was 350,000, which would have amounted to about a copy per household. At the age of 39, Verdaguer traveled to Paris, Switzerland, Germany and Russia. On March 21, 1886, when he was 41 years old, Bishop Morgades crowned him 'Poet of Catalonia' in the monastery of Ripoll. He published the epic poem Canigó and made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
  In 1893, following controversy about aspects of his work as a priest, he left the post of alms chaplain at the Marqués de Comillas' palace. The publication of the trilogy Jesús Infant was completed, and he was assigned to the sanctuary of La Gleva. For a period, he was stripped of his office as priest, although this was eventually restored. In 1894, the books Roser de tot l'any and Veus del bon pastor were published. On March 31 he left the sanctuary of La Gleva.
  On May 17, 1902, on his 57th birthday, he moved from his home at Carrer Aragó 235 in Barcelona to the country house known as Vil·la Joana, in Vallvidrera (Barcelona), where he hoped to convalesce. On June 10, he died in Vil·la Joana, which is now one of the Barcelona City History Museum (MUHBA) heritage sites.
  Verdaguer was buried in Montjuïc Cemetery in Barcelona.

Selected works
Among his works are:

 -  L'Atlàntida (Atlantis, 1876), epic poem
 -  Idil·lis i cants místics (Idylls and Mystic Songs, 1879), book of poems
 -  Montserrat (1880, 1899), book of poems on the topic of Montserrat
 -  "A Barcelona" ("To Barcelona", 1883), ode in 46 stanzas
 -  Caritat (Charity, 1885)
 -  Canigó (1886), epic poem
 -  Sant Francesc (Saint Francis, 1895)
 -  Flors del Calvari (Flowers of Calvary, 1896)

The scenic cantata Atlàntida, composed by Manuel de Falla and completed after de Falla's death by Ernesto Halffter, is based on Verdaguer's L'Atlàntida. Manuel de Falla considered this large-scale orchestral piece to be the most important of all his works.

Some of his shorter poems are well known as songs in Catalonia, especially "L'Emigrant" ("Sweet Catalonia, country of my heart...").

Mount Canigou
The Canigou (el. 2,784.66 m./9137 ft.) is a mountain located in the Pyrenees of southern France. Due to its sharp flanks and its dramatic location near the coast, until the 18th century the Canigou was believed to be the highest mountain in the Pyrenees.

The Canigou is located in Pyrénées-Orientales, south of Prades and north of Prats-de-Mollo-la-Preste. Its summit is a quadripoint between the territories of Casteil, Taurinya, Valmanya and Vernet-les-Bains. Its location makes it visible from the plains of Roussillon and from Conflent in France, and as well from Empordà in Spain.
  Twice a year, in early February and at the end of October, with good weather, the Canigou can be seen at sunset from as far as Marseille, 250 km away, by refraction of light. This phenomenon was observed in 1808 by baron Franz Xaver von Zach from the Notre-Dame de la Garde basilica in Marseille. All year long, it can also be seen, with good weather, from Agde, Port-Camargue and the Montagne Noire.

Trekking and sightseeing
Jeep tracks on the north side of the massif lead to the Chalet des Cortalets (at 2150 m) which is a popular outpost with walkers.
There are two ancient monasteries at the foot of the mountain, Martin-du-Canigou and Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa.

Canigou Flame
The mountain has symbolical significance for Catalan people. On its summit stands a cross that is often decorated with the Catalan flag. Every year on 23 June, the night before St. John's day (nuit de Saint Jean), there is a ceremony called Flama del Canigó (Canigou Flame), where a fire is lit at the mountaintop. People keep a vigil during the night and take torches lit on the fire in a spectacular torch relay to light bonfires elsewhere. Many bonfires are lit in this way all over the Pyrénées-Orientales, Catalonia, Valencian Community, and Balearic Islands (theoretically), but in practice only goes through the Pyrénées-Orientales and Catalonia.

The Canigou inspired the epic poem "Canigó" by Catalan poet Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló. In these verses Verdaguer compares the snowy mountain to a Magnolia flower (pages 27–28):

Lo Canigó és una magnòlia immensa
que en un rebrot del Pirineu se bada;
per abelles té fades que la volten,
per papallons los cisnes i les àligues.
Formen son càlzer escarides serres
que plateja l’hivern i l’estiu daura,
grandiós beire on beu olors l’estrella,
los aires rellentor, los núvols aigua.
Les boscúries de pins són sos bardissos,
los Estanyols ses gotes de rosada,
i és son pistil aqueix palau aurífic,
somni d’aloja que del cel davalla.

The Canigó is an immense magnolia
that blooms in an offshoot of the Pyrenees;
its bees are the fairies that surround it,
and its butterflies the swans and the eagles.
Its cup are jagged mountain chains,
colored in silver by the winter and in gold by the summer,
huge cup where the star drinks fragrances,
the airs freshness and the clouds water.
The pine forests are its hedges
and the ponds its dew drops,
and its pistil is that golden palace,
seen by the nymph in her dreams descending from heaven.

Vernet-les-Bains (Catalan: Vernet) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
  It is a centre for visitors and holidaymakers. The village enjoys a sunny climate (with, on average, 300 days of sunshine each year) and is set in a sheltered valley in the foothills of the Canigou mountain - which rises to a height of 2,785 metres (over 9,000 feet). Tranquil and restful, Vernet-les-Bains has long been known for its hot water spring. There is a professional spa/therapy centre in the village.


Vernet-les-Bains is located in the canton of Le Canigou and in the arrondissement of Prades.

Close by is the Yellow train which runs 63 kilometres (39 mi) from Villefranche-de-Conflent up to Mont-Louis and Latour-de-Carol. The line has the highest station in France at 1,593 metres (5,226 ft) and is both a vital lifeline during winter conditions and a favourite tourist attraction.
Appears to be a "local" bus service between Perpignan & Vernet-les-Bains.
Villefranche-de-Conflent is also on a regional train line that connects to Perpignan.

The Entente Cordiale Monument in Vernet-les-Bains
  Near the highest point in Vernet-les-Bains, next to the mairie (town hall), stands a monument to the Entente Cordiale of 1904. It is the only one of its kind in France.
  The pedestal of the monument is made of Canigou granite. On it rest two white marble statues representing France and Britain. The pedestal itself is set upon a circular base. That in turn is located on a raised, level area of ground which covers 1,000 square metres and which is bounded by low stone walls.
  The idea of erecting this monument was conceived around 1912 by the town council and its then mayor, Monsieur Joseph Mercader. The wealthy British visitors who regularly came to this health spa at that time actively supported the project. A committee of prominent French and British patrons was set up to promote the scheme. Its leading members were Lord Roberts and General Joffre. Monsieur Lambert-Violet, a leading Perpignan businessman, gave the land for the memorial to Vernet. The monument itself was the work of the Roussillon sculptor Gustave Violet, who displayed a model of his proposed work in 1913. However, progress came to a halt in 1914 with the outbreak of World War One. Little further happened until August 1920, when it was proclaimed by presidential decree that work on the monument would proceed but that it would be dedicated both to the Entente Cordiale and to the memory of those killed during the war. At the same time a new appeal was launched for funds to complete the project.
  Work on erecting the monument soon got underway. Granite was hauled up from the bed of the River St-Vincent in carts pulled by oxen. The stonemason, Monsieur Herbetta, worked up to fourteen hours a day, often in the sun's full glare, fashioning and putting into place the enormously heavy blocks of stone. A circle of wrought-iron fencing was erected around the base of the monument. Monsieur Antoine Mercader remembers, as a six-year-old child, how he and other children watched with amazement as the craftsman, Monsieur Serra, poured molten lead into small holes in the ground to seal in place the fence's iron bars. When the monument was completed, it bore the following dedications:
"To the Entente Cordiale between France and Britain. To the glory of the Allied Nations. To the memory of soldiers from Vernet who died for their country"

Eglise Saint Saturnin in Vernet-les-Bains
Follow any one of the small roads up the hill this Church sits at the top of, from the square where the Tourist office is located and some spectacular views of the mountains across the river are visible between and over the houses. The gardens and plants on the way up are quite colourful especially in Summer, there are frequent benches situated in shady spots for the climb. The Church while "small" and basic is worth the climb. On the side wall of the Church is a sundial and a plaque giving some details of the Church, it states "Chapelle N.D del Puig" which appears to have been on the site since 863.

Walks near Vernet-les-Bains
There are many beautiful walks from and close to Vernet-les-Bains. In particular it is an ideal base from which to climb to the summit of Canigou.

Notable people: Rudyard Kipling in Vernet-les-Bains
Rudyard Kipling, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907, stayed in Vernet-les-Bains in 1910, 1911 and 1914. At that time, Kipling was well known in France, following the success of the French version of his classic work, The Jungle Book.
  While he was in Vernet, Kipling wrote about Canigou. In a letter to the Club Alpin, he praised it as "a magician among mountains".
  Kipling also wrote a light-hearted short story entitled Why Snow Falls at Vernet. It makes fun of the English habit of always talking about the weather.