Lithuania Currency 10 Litu banknote 1927

LITHUANIA currency 10 Litu banknote
LITHUANIA paper money 10 Litu banknote
Lithuania Currency 10 Litu banknote 1927
Bank of Lithuania - Lietuvos Bankas

Obverse: The Coat of arms of Lithuania - Vytis ("the Chaser") at upper center. The Columns of Gediminas or Pillars of Gediminas at lower center. Denomination figures “10” in ornate guilloche at left and right and in each corner.
Reverse: Farmers tilling the fields at center and face value in ornate guilloche at left and right and in each corner.

Watermark: Illegible.
Designer: Adomas Galdikas.
Printer: Bradbury Wilkinson & Co. England.

Lithuania banknotes - Lithuania paper money

1927-1928 Issue

10 Litu      50 Litu      100 Litu

1924 Issue

500 Litu         1000 Litu

1929-1930 "500 Years Vytautas the Great" Commemorative Issues

5 Litai         20 Litu

Coat of arms of Lithuania
The coat of arms of Lithuania, consisting of an armour-clad knight on horseback holding a sword and shield, is also known as Vytis.
Article 15 of the Constitution of Lithuania, approved by national referendum in 1992, stipulates, "The Coat of Arms of the State shall be a white Vytis on a red field". The heraldic shield features the field gules (red) with an armoured knight on a horse salient argent (silver). The knight is holding in his dexter hand a sword argent above his head. A shield azure hangs on the sinister shoulder of the knight with a double cross or (gold) on it. The horse saddle, straps, and belts are azure. The hilt of the sword and the fastening of the sheath, the stirrups, the curb bits of the bridle, the horseshoes, as well as the decoration of the harness, are or (gold).
  The blazon is the following:
Gules, a knight armed cap-à-pie mounted on a horse salient argent, brandishing a sword proper and maintaining a shield azure charged with a cross of Lorraine Or.

Use as a state symbol
  By the 15th century, the heraldic knight became representative of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and of its central part, the Duchy of Vilnius. Its name Pogonia is first recorded in the Statutes of Lithuania of 1588.
  In the 16th century, the knight's shield was depicted as blue with a gold double cross, constructed in such a way that all six ends are equal in length. The double cross was attributed to Jogaila, who was said to have adopted it after his baptism as Ladislaus and marriage with Hungarian princess and King of Poland Hedvig Angevin in 1386. It is derived from the Hungarian cross, the assumed coat of arms of Saint Ladislaus, King of Hungary, which is in turn a derivative of the Patriarchal cross.
  The Renaissance introduced minor stylistic changes and variations: long feathers waving from the tip of the knight's helm, a long saddle-cloth, the horse tail turned upwards and shaped as nosegay. With these changes the coat of arms remained the State symbol of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until 1795, when Lithuania was annexed to the Russian Empire. Traditional Lithuania's coat of arms was abolished. However, in 1845 tsar Nicholas I confirmed a coat of arms for the Vilna Governorate that closely resembled the historical one. A notable later change was the replacement of the double cross with the red Byzantine cross on the knight's shield.
  At first, the charging knight was interpreted as the ruler of the country. As time passed, he became a knight who is chasing intruders out of his native country. Such an interpretation was especially popular in the 19th century, and the first half of the 20th century, when Lithuania was part of the Russian Empire and sought its independence.
  When Lithuania restored its independence in 1918–1920, several artists produced different versions of the coat of arms. Almost all versions included a scabbard, which is not found in earliest specimens. A romanticized version by Antanas Žmuidzinavičius became the most popular. The horse appeared to be flying in the air (courant). The gear was very decorative. For example, the saddle blanket was very long and divided into three parts. There was no uniform or official version of the coat of arms. To address popular complaints, in 1929 a special commission was set up to analyze the best 16th century specimens of Vytis to design an official state emblem. Mstislav Dobuzhinsky was the chief artist. The commission worked for 5 years, but their version of the coat of arms was not officially confirmed while Juozas Zikaras' version was introduced for the official use on coins.
  The Vytis was the state emblem of the Republic of Lithuania until 1940, when the Republic was annexed by the Soviet Union and all national insignia were outlawed. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Vytis, together with the Columns of Gediminas and the national flag, became symbols of the independence movement in Lithuania. In 1988, the Vytis was legalized. On March 11, 1990 Lithuania declared its independence and restored all of its pre-war national symbols, including the historical coat of arms. On March 20, 1990 the Supreme Council of Lithuania approved the description of the State's coat of arms and determined the principal regulations for its use. The design was based on Juozas Zikaras' design that was used on all litas coins in the interwar period. This was to demonstrate that Lithuania was continuing the traditions of the State that existed between 1918–1940. On September 4, 1991, a new design by Arvydas Každailis was approved based on recommendations of a special heraldic committee. It abandoned romantic interwar traditions and went back to the times of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It re-established the original colors. However, early coins of centas still bore the old Zikaras' design until 2015.
  In 2004, the Seimas confirmed the new national symbol and the historical flag of Lithuania. It depicts the coat of arms on a rectangular red fabric. It did not replace the tri-color national flag of Lithuania. It is used only by official institutions for special occasions and anniversaries. It is currently proposed that a larger version of the coat of arms should be adopted. It would have a line from Tautiška giesmė, the national anthem of Lithuania, "Vienybė težydi" (Let Unity Flourish). The Seimas, in fact, uses a larger version of the coat of arms with this phrase as its motto, along with two supporters, the dexter one a griffin argent beaked and membered or, langued gules, and the sinister one a unicorn argent, armed and unguled or, langued gules, and the ducal hat on top of the shield. The President of Lithuania uses the shield and supporters only.

Origins of the word Vytis
It is unknown for certain what Lithuania's coat or arms was initially called; Edmundas Rimša claims that the Ruthenian word Pogonia was used for it for the first time in the 16th century. The earliest known Lithuanian name for the coat of arms is a 17th-century translation of Pogonia by Konstantinas Sirvydas as Waikimas ("Vaikymas" in the modern Lithuanian orthography), which was used until the 19th century together with Pagaunia.
  The origins of the Lithuanian proper noun Vytis are not clear either. At the dawn of the Lithuanian National Revival, Simonas Daukantas employed the term wytis, referring to the "rider", for the first time in his historical piece Budą Senowęs Lietuwiû kalneniu ir Żemaitiû, published in 1846. The etymology of this particular name is not universally accepted; it is either a direct translation of the Polish Pogoń, a common noun constructed from the Lithuanian verb vyti ("to chase"), or, less likely, a derivative from the East Slavic title of the knight, vytiaz'. The first presumption, raised by the linguist Pranas Skardžius in 1937, is challenged by some, since Pogoń does not actually mean "chasing (knight)". In support of the second proposal, the Lithuanian language has words with the stem -vyt in such personal names as Vytenis; furthermore, vytis has a structure common to words constructed from verbs.
  In 1884, Mikalojus Akelaitis coined the Lithuanian name Vytis for the coat of arms in the newspaper Auszra. This name came to popular use and was eventually legitimized and became official in the independent Republic of Lithuania.
  Old Prussian word vi̇tingas had a meaning of a nobleman, knight.
  In the Russophone world and the East Slavic culture there is a similar word Vityaz which means a brave knight or a bold hero. According to the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, that word is derived from the Old Germanic Witing. In western South Slavic languages (Slovenian, Croatian/Serbian/Montenegrin and Macedonian) vitez denotes the lowest feudal rank, a knight.

Columns of Gediminas or Pillars of Gediminas
The Columns of Gediminas or Pillars of Gediminas are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania and one of its historical coats of arms. They were used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, initially as a rulers' personal insignia, a state symbol, and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy. During the period between World War I and World War II they were used by the Lithuanian Republic as a minor state symbol, e. g. on Litas coins and military equipment.

  The symbol appears in the following form: Horizontal line at bottom, vertical lines extend up at both ends. The Square at the middle of the horizontal line is about half as tall as the vertical lines. Another vertical line rises from the top center of the square, giving an overall appearance that is close to a trident. This form is the one usually seen in modern times, often drawn on walls and fences as protest against the Soviet occupation of Lithuania.
  It is notable that the ancient pre-Christian symbols of Lithuania did not follow the same strict rules of heraldry as their western counterparts. Thus this symbol was used in Or and argent, usually on the field gules, and was depicted in various shapes on flags, banners and shields.

The name "Columns of Gediminas" was given in the 19th century by historian Teodor Narbutt, who supposed that the symbol was Gediminas' insignia. The more exact name of the symbol is the Pillars of Gediminids, since there is no direct evidence of its connection with Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas.

According to the historical and archaeological evidence, the Columns were used by Grand Duke of Lithuania and Duke of Trakai Kęstutis. They appear on the Lithuanian coins issued by him. The symbol was also used by Vytautas as his personal insignia since 1397 and appeared on his seal and coins. According to the accounts of Jan Długosz, it was derived from a symbol or brand used to mark horses and other property. The Columns were adopted by descendants of Kęstutis as their family symbol, equivalent to a coat of arms. Another user of the Columns of Gediminas was Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Kęstutaitis. At first the Columns signified the family of Kęstutis, in contrast to the Vytis which was used by Algirdas' descendants. Later on, as a symbol of a ruling dynasty, it was adopted by Jagiellons and the two symbols became state symbols of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
  The Columns of Gediminas are displayed on the left sleeve of Jogaila in one of his best-known portraits, painted by Jan Matejko, although Jogaila's personal insignia was a double cross. The Columns of Gediminas remained in use over the following centuries. After the annexation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union the symbol was officially banned. During the Singing Revolution in the late 80s, it became an important part of the icon of Sąjūdis, the reform movement. The Columns of Gediminas are featured on the Lithuanian Presidential award Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas, installed in 1928. The official logo of the EuroBasket 2011, that took place in Lithuania, is composed of the Columns overlaid on a basketball board.