Egypt 50 Pounds banknote 2012

Egypt money currency 50 Pounds banknote 2012 Mosque of Amir Qijmas al-Ishaqi - Mosque of Abu Hurayba
Egypt banknotes 50 Pounds banknote 2012 Edfu temple

Egypt banknotes 50 Pounds banknote 2012
Central Bank of Egypt

Obverse: The Mosque of Amir Qijmas al-Ishaqi (Mosque of Abu Hurayba) in old Islamic Cairo. Islamic ornamental patterns. Eye of Horus See-through registration.
Reverse: Interior view Edfu temple; Pharaonic sailing ship; Winged Sun of Thebes; Winged scarab;
Watermark: Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style and the value of the note in Electro- type.
Original Size: 161 x 70 mm
Texts: Central Bank of Egypt; Fifty Pounds.

Egypt Banknotes - Egyptian Paper Money‎
1978-2008 Issue

25 Piastres      50 Piastres      1 Pound      5 Pounds      10 Pounds      

20 Pounds      100 Pounds

1994-2014 Issue

50 Piastres      5 Pounds      10 Pounds      20 Pounds      50 Pounds     

 100 Pounds      200 Pounds

Mosque of Qajmas al-Ishaqi
The Mosque of Amir Qijmas al-Ishaqi (sometimes referred to as the Mosque of Abu Hurayba) is located on Darb al-Ahmar in old Islamic Cairo. It dates from the 15th Century, having been built sometimes between 1479 and 1481 AD by Amir Sayf al-Din Qajmas. It was restored in 1894 and again in 1982.
Amir Qijmas al-Ishaqi occupied several important posts during the Circassian Mamluk rule of Sultan Qaytbay. Qajimas, who was described as a pious, benevolent and highly respected. was "Master of the Horse", and was also put in charge of the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca. He also served as governor of Alexandria, a Grand Marshal, and prior to his death, viceroy of Syria, where he died in 1487. He was buried in Damascus, leaving his tomb chamber entered through the qibla liwan and located on the corner of two streets empty. It became the final resting place of Abu Hurayba, a holy man, in 1852, which explains one of the alternate names for this mosque.
  The Amir Qijmas al-Ishaqi complex is very near Bab Zuiwayla and it presents its most appealing facade when viewing it from that direction towards the Citadel. In fact, the minaret of this mosque presents a good view of Bab Zuwayla and the surrounding quarter. The mosque sits on a triangular piece of land, though the mosque has a cruciform layout, at the intersection of two streets, and therefore it provides a very good example of the ingenious ways in which architects of the late Mamluk period adjusted the various elements of a building to the available building site. In erecting this structure, they made maximum use of both street facades, whose various erections are unified by the decorations. Interestingly, the dome is unusually plain for a mosque of this period.
  The mosque, like others of this period, is built over shops which are continuous on all of the exterior faces. A sabil, which is a public drinking fountain that was often included in such structures, resides behind the grilled windows near the mosque entrance. It features beautiful marble inlay lintels over the windows. Here, if one looks closely at the knots of the grills it is possible to see the blazon of Qajmas, a composite that shows a napkin in the upper field with a cup charged with a penbox placed between "horns of plenty" in the middle, and a cup in the bottom field. The corner column is particularly well carved.
Just above the entrance to the mosque is a magnificent panel of ablaq (alternating red and white or black and white patterns) marble, consisting of a swirl of six leaf forms in red, black and white white with turquoise highlights. This seems to be a focal point for the marble mosaic lintels above the various windows. There are also Koranic inscriptions in the entrance. The door itself is adorned with a central medallion pattern in bronze, which apparently replaced a solid bronze facing of the early Mamluk period. Within the entrance, a square vestibule with a richly gilded ceiling surrounded by an epigraphic frieze is first encountered. Here, there is a latticed window between this room and the mausoleum. To the left is a somewhat remarkable sliding doorway with two halves that is not unlike modern examples. Through this entrance one passes into a corridor that is part light source and part ventilation.
  In a reduced form, the interior of this mosque is a fine example of the typical Cairene evolution of the cruciform madrasa (Islamic school), with a covered courtyard (sahn) and small, lateral liwans. Because of the high standard of craftsmanship, it remains one of the most important ancient mosques of the Qaybay period. The decorations are extraordinary, with color harmonies of the marble paneling, the fine stone carving of the walls, and the splendid wood ceilings which are well decorated and gilded.
The Mihrab, which is a niche in the "qibla" wall indicating the direction of Mecca for prayers, is very interesting, as well as richly decorated using a new technique. Here, we find black bitumen and red paste fill grooved designs in white marble. This may have been because of a shortage marble during this period, but it was also used to achieve a more sinuous and compact effect. Near the center of the mihrab within a mirror image cartouche, the artist who created the mosque's decoration signed his work as "Made by 'Abd al-Qadir the designer: (or engraver al-Naqqash). Close by is the minbar, which is basically a raised pulpit for the prayer leader. It has a central stairway with raised boss, and is geometric in design.
  The floors within the mosque are also notable, though one must ask the custodian to lift the mats in order to see them. They are paved in excellent marble panels, and the flooring in the qibla liwan is particularly fine. Stained glass windows allow illumination within the mosque. Their colorful design which includes a cypress tree, suggest that they are a restoration from the Ottoman period.
Across the street from the mosque a sabil (fountain) and kuttab (elementary school for instruction on the Koran) was built. Such structures became an integral part of the planning of most monuments of this period. The kuttab was (at least up until recently) still used as an elementary school. This separate structure is attached to the mosque by a raised passage over the street. The mashrabiyya windows above the passage indicate that this area was intended as a residential unit for dependents and heirs.

Temple of Edfu
The Temple of Edfu is an ancient Egyptian temple located on the west bank of the Nile in the city of Edfu which was known in Greco-Roman times as Apollonopolis Magna, after the chief god Horus-Apollo. It is one of the best preserved temples in Egypt. The temple, dedicated to the falcon god Horus, was built in the Ptolemaic period between 237 and 57 BC. The inscriptions on its walls provide important information on language, myth and religion during the Greco-Roman period in ancient Egypt. In particular, the Temple's inscribed building texts "provide details [both] of its construction, and also preserve information about the mythical interpretation of this and all other temples as the Island of Creation." There are also "important scenes and inscriptions of the Sacred Drama which related the age-old conflict between Horus and Seth." They are translated by the German Edfu-Project.
  Edfu was one of several temples built during the Ptolemaic period, including Dendera, Esna, Kom Ombo and Philae. Its size reflects the relative prosperity of the time. The present temple, which was begun "on 23 August 237 BC, initially consisted of a pillared hall, two transverse halls, and a barque sanctuary surrounded by chapels." The building was started during the reign of Ptolemy III and completed in 57 BC under Ptolemy XII. It was built on the site of an earlier, smaller temple also dedicated to Horus, although the previous structure was oriented east-west rather than north-south as in the present site. A ruined pylon lies just to the east of the current temple; inscriptional evidence has been found indicating a building program under the New Kingdom rulers Ramesses I, Seti I and Ramesses II.
  A naos of Nectanebo II, a relic from an earlier building, is preserved in the inner sanctuary, which stands alone while the temple's barque sanctuary is surrounded by nine chapels.
  The temple of Edfu fell into disuse as a religious monument following Theodosius I's edict banning non-Christian worship within the Roman Empire in 391. As elsewhere, many of the temple's carved reliefs were razed by followers of the Christian faith which came to dominate Egypt. The blackened ceiling of the hypostyle hall, visible today, is believed to be the result of arson intended to destroy religious imagery that was then considered pagan.
  Over the centuries, the temple became buried to a depth of 12 metres (39 ft) beneath drifting desert sand and layers of river silt deposited by the Nile. Local inhabitants built homes directly over the former temple grounds. Only the upper reaches of the temple pylons were visible by 1798, when the temple was identified by a French expedition. In 1860 Auguste Mariette, a French Egyptologist, began the work of freeing Edfu temple from the sands.
  The Temple of Edfu is nearly intact and a very good example of an ancient Egyptian temple. The Temple of Edfu's archaeological significance and high state of preservation has made it a centre for tourism in Egypt and a frequent stop for the many riverboats that cruise the Nile. In 2005, access to the temple was revamped with the addition of a visitor center and paved carpark. A sophisticated lighting system was added in late 2006 to allow night visits.
  The temple of Edfu is the largest temple dedicated to Horus and Hathor of Dendera. It was the center of several festivals sacred to Horus. Each year, "Hathor travelled south from her temple at Denderah to visit Horus at Edfu, and this event marking their sacred marriage was the occasion of a great festival and pilgrimage."
  The Temple of Edfu provides the model for Temple Works in Holbeck, Leeds. The courtyard columns at Edfu are closely copied in the frontage of the leeds building.

Winged Sun of Thebes
The winged sun is a symbol associated with divinity, royalty and power in the Ancient Near East (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Persia).
In Ancient Egypt, the symbol is attested from the Old Kingdom (Sneferu, 26th century BC), often flanked on either side with a uraeus. In early Egyptian religion, the symbol Behedeti represented Horus of Edfu, later identified with Ra-Harachte. It is sometimes depicted on the neck of Apis, the bull of Ptah. As time passed (according to interpretation) all of the subordinated gods of Egypt were considered to be aspects of the sun god, including e.g. Khepri.

Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten") known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is Satisfied), was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monotheistic or henotheistic. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods.
  Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, traditional religious practice was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later rulers without clear rights of succession from the Eighteenth Dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to Akhenaten himself as "the enemy" or "that criminal" in archival records.
  He was all but lost from history until the discovery of the site of Akhetaten, the city he built for the Aten, at Amarna during the 19th century. Early excavations at Amarna by Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enigmatic pharaoh, and a mummy found in the tomb KV55, which was unearthed in 1907 in a dig led by Edward R. Ayrton, is likely that of Akhenaten. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, but its identification as Akhenaten has been questioned.
  Modern interest in Akhenaten and his queen, Nefertiti, comes partly from his connection with Tutankhamun, partly from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he patronized, and partly from ongoing interest in the religion he attempted to establish.