Spain 500 Pesetas banknote 1940 Don Juan de Austria

Spain Banknotes 500 Pesetas banknote 1940 Don Juan de Austria
Spain money currency 500 Pesetas banknote 1940 The Battle of Lepanto

Spain Banknotes 500 Pesetas banknote 1940 Don Juan de Austria
Bank of Spain - Banco de España

Obverse: Portrait of Don Juan de Austria, engraved by Paressi (Don John of Austria).
Reverse: Fragment of the painting "The Battle of Lepanto".
Printer: Calcografia & Cartevalori Milan, Italy.
Watermark: Bust of Juan de Austria.
Size: 155 x 96 mm. Circulation: 3,380,000 notes. In circulation from 28 August 1945.

Spain Banknotes - Spain Paper Money
09.01.1940 Issue "Printer Calcografia & Cartevalori, Milano"

25 Pesetas    50 Pesetas    100 Pesetas    500 Pesetas    1000 Pesetas

Don Juan de Austria
Juan de Austria, also called Don Juan de Austria, in English traditionally known as Don John of Austria (born February 24, 1547, Regensburg [Germany] — died October 1, 1578, Bouges, near Namur, Spanish Netherlands [now in Belgium]), illegitimate son of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V and half brother of King Philip II of Spain who, as a Spanish military commander, achieved victory over the Turks in the historic naval Battle of Lepanto.
   Removed from his mother, a burgher’s daughter, at an early age, he was brought up in concealment in Spain. After the death of Charles V, Philip II of Spain recognized him as his half brother, provided him with a substantial household, and gave him the name Don Juan de Austria (1559).
   Although it was hoped that he would enter the church, the handsome and spirited Don Juan expressed a desire to embark on a military career, and Philip acceded to his wishes. In the summer of 1568 Don Juan had his first brief experience in warfare, fighting Moorish pirates in the Mediterranean, and he was then appointed in March 1569 commander in chief of Spanish forces attempting to subdue the rebellious Moriscos, or Christians of Moorish ancestry, in Granada. Philip then appointed him in 1571 to head the naval forces of the Holy League of Spain, Venice, and the pope against the Ottoman Turks in the eastern Mediterranean.
   By the prestige of his royal name and his enthusiasm, Don Juan was able to impose a temporary unity of purpose on the quarreling admirals of the league and to form the several fleets into an effective fighting unit. In the Battle of Lepanto (October 7, 1571) the allies virtually annihilated the Turkish forces, thereby destroying the myth of Turkish invincibility. The victory of Lepanto also fired Don Juan’s personal ambitions for further campaigns against the Turks, but Philip would only allow him to conquer Tunis (1573). The city was, however, reconquered by the Turks the following year.
   For several years Don Juan continued to chafe under the restraints his prudent brother imposed upon him, but in 1576 he was appointed governor-general of the Netherlands, then in open revolt against Spanish authority. Don Juan was at first reluctant to accept this difficult post and took it only on condition that he would be allowed to invade England and wed Mary Stuart, the Scottish queen then in captivity in England. In the Netherlands he signed the Perpetual Edict with the rebels (February 1577), by which, in exchange for rebel recognition of Don Juan as governor and restoration of the Roman Catholic religion, Spanish troops were to be removed. The provinces of Holland and Zeeland did not accept the return to Catholicism and refused to recognize Don Juan’s authority. Don Juan then assumed the more congenial role of soldier and resumed the war by capturing Namur.
   Don Juan’s last months were marred by the murder of his secretary, Juan de Escobedo, who had aroused Philip’s enmity. The monarch’s complicity in the crime was strongly suspected. Don Juan felt that he had lost his brother’s confidence and was also hampered in his war in the Netherlands by lack of adequate financial and military backing. He was facing an increasingly intolerable position when he died in 1578.

The Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement taking place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where the Ottoman forces sailing westwards from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily. The Holy League was a coalition of European Catholic maritime states arranged by Pope Pius V and led by admiral John of Austria, as agreed between Philip II of Spain, who largely financed the League, and the Venetian Republic (main contributor of ships).
  In the history of naval warfare, Lepanto marks the last major engagement in the Western world to be fought entirely or almost entirely between rowing vessels, the galleys and galeasses that were still the direct descendants of the ancient trireme warships. The battle was in essence an "infantry battle on floating platforms". It was the largest naval battle in Western history since classical antiquity, involving more than 400 warships. Over the following decades, the increasing importance of the galleon and the line of battle tactic would displace the galley as the major warship of its era, marking the beginning of the "Age of Sail".
  The victory of the Holy League is of great importance in the history of Europe and of the Ottoman Empire, marking the turning-point of Ottoman military expansion into the Mediterranean, although the Ottoman wars in Europe would continue for another century. It has long been compared to the Battle of Salamis both for tactical parallels and for its crucial importance in the defense of Europe against imperial expansion. It was also of great symbolic importance in a period when Europe was torn by its own wars of religion following the Protestant Reformation, strengthening the position of Philip II of Spain as the "Most Catholic King" and defender of Christendom against Muslim incursion, although this was mitigated by the defeat of the Spanish Armada by the Royal Navy of England in 1588.