Spain money 2000 Pesetas banknote of 1992 José Celestino Mutis

Spain money currency 2000 Pesetas
2000 Spanish pesetas banknote
Spain money currency 2000 Pesetas banknote
2000 pesetas Spanish Pre-Euro banknote
Spain money 2000 Pesetas banknote of 1992 - banknotes commemorating Spain in America, issued by the Bank of Spain - El Banco de España.
Spanish banknotes, Spanish bank notes, Spanish paper money, Spain banknotes, Spain bank notes, Spain paper money.

Obverse: Portrait of José Celestino Mutis observing flower, botanist of New Granada (Colombia), born in Cádiz, Spain, in 1732. Oil painting by R. Cristobal. Outline map of North and South America at center. The matching element for front and back is the mariner's compass card. Intaglio rosette, a stylised depiction of a branch of the Cinchona Tree, which Mutis's Posthumous Work addressed. Date of Issue at center: Madrid, 24 April 1992.
Signatures: Mariano Rubio Jiménez (El Gobernador del Banco de España); Esteban Róspide Echeto (El Interventor); Jesús Urdiola Salvador (El Cajero).

Reverse: View of entrance gate of the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid (Spanish: Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid) and title page of Mutis work on vertical format. Drawing of the Mutisia orchid (Mutisia clematis), named in his honour and Sketch with connected lines forming initials "JCM" (José Celestino Mutis) at center. Coat of Arms of Spain at upper right.

Watermark: Effigy of José Celestino Mutis and a symbol of the 5th centennial of the Discovery of America by Spain.
Dimensions: 138 x 68 mm.
Printed by Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre, Madrid.
Graphic Design: Reinhold Gerstetter. Engraving: Pablo Sampedro Molero.

Spain Banknotes
1992 Issue
Issued for the 5th centennial of the Discovery of America by Spain

1000 Pesetas        2000 Pesetas        5000 Pesetas        10000 Pesetas

José Celestino Mutis
José Celestino Mutis (6 April 1732 – 11 September 1808) was a Spanish priest, botanist and mathematician. He was a significant figure in the Spanish American Enlightenment, whom Alexander von Humboldt met with on his expedition to Spanish America.
  He was born in Cádiz and baptized with the name José Celestino Bruno Mutis y Bosio. He began his medical studies at the College of Surgery in Cádiz, where he also studied physics, chemistry and botany. He graduated in medicine from the University of Seville on 2 May 1755.
  On 5 July 1757 he received his doctorate in medicine. From 1757 to 1760 he was interim professor of anatomy in Madrid. During those same years he continued to study botany at the Migas Calientes Botanical Gardens (now the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid), and also astronomy and philosopher mathematics.
  After three years he decided to leave for America, as the private physician of the new viceroy of New Granada, Pedro Messía de la Cerda. He sailed on 7 September 1760, arriving at Santa Fe de Bogotá on 24 February 1761. During the long transatlantic passage he began writing his Diario de Observaciones, which he continued until 1791.
  From his arrival in the Viceroyalty, Mutis concentrated on his botanical studies, beginning work on an herbal and investigating for cinchona, which was considered a panacea for the treatment of all kinds of diseases. He wrote El Arcano de la Quina.

Botanical expedition
Beginning in 1763, Mutis proposed to the king that he sponsor an expedition to study the flora and fauna of the region. He had to wait 20 years for the authorization, but in 1783 the king authorized his expedition (one of three royal botanical expeditions to the New World at about that time). In the interim, Mutis concentrated on commercial and mineralogical projects, not neglecting medicine. He also studied the social and economic conditions of the viceroyalty, and continued to expand his collection of flora and fauna. On 19 December 1772 he was ordained a priest. He was in regular correspondence with scientists in Spain and elsewhere in Europe, particularly Carl Linnaeus.
  Mutis led the Royal Botanical Expedition, established in 1783, for 25 years. It explored some 8,000 km2 in a range of climates, using the Río Magdalena for access to the interior. He developed a meticulous methodology that included the harvesting of the samples in the field together with detailed descriptions, including data on the surroundings of each species and its utility. Hundreds of plants were discovered and described. More than 8,000 plates, plus maps, correspondence, notes and manuscripts were sent to Spain. His museum consisted of 24,000 dried plants, 5,000 drawings of plants by his pupils, and a collection of woods, shells, resins, minerals, and skins. These treasures arrived safely at Madrid in 105 boxes, and the plants, manuscripts, and drawings were sent to the botanical gardens, where they were relegated to a tool-house.
  The Royal Botanical Expedition headquarters moved in two different occasions. Initially it was based on the municipality of La Mesa de Juan Diaz (Department of Cundinamarca), then in November 1783 it was moved to Mariquita (Department of Tolima). Finally in 1791 it was moved to Santa Fe de Bogota.
  Much of the work was wasted because the results remained unedited and unanalyzed. Also, the collation between the notes and the plates was lost during the transfer to Spain. His work on the species and varieties of Chinchona had lasting influence.
  He determined the longitude of Bogotá by the observation of an eclipse of a satellite of Jupiter and was a major influence on the construction of the National Astronomical Observatory.
  In March 1762, at the inauguration of the chair of mathematics at the Colegio del Rosario, he expounded the principles of the Copernican system and of the experimental method of science, leading to a confrontation with the church. In 1774 he had to defend the teaching of the principles of Copernicus, as well as natural philosophy and modern, Newtonian physics and mathematics, before the Inquisition.
  In 1784, he was elected a foreign member of the RSAOS Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
  Alexander von Humboldt visited Mutis in 1801, during his expedition to America. Humboldt stayed with Mutis for two months, and greatly admired his botanical collection.
  Mutis died in Bogotá on 2 September 1808, at age 76, a victim of apoplexy. Because much of his botanical work was lost or unpublished, he is known to history not as a great scientist, but as a great promoter of science and knowledge.

Botany: He studied the flora of his surroundings, and produced a marvelous collection of plates of Colombian plants that are now located in the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid.
Linguistics: He studied the indigenous languages of the area. By order of King Charles III, he developed a series of elementary vocabularies of various languages (about 100 words in each language). King Charles was responding to a request from Czarina Catherine the Great to provide vocabularies of all the languages spoken in his realms, in order to develop a monumental dictionary of all the languages of the world. The dictionary was in fact published, but the compilers published it in alphabetical order, making it nearly impossible to consult.
Other sciences, including important contributions to industrial processes, such as silver mining and the distillation of rum.

 - Diario de observaciones de José Celestino Mutis, 1760-1790, 2 vols. 2nd edition. Bogotá: Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica 1983
 - Escritos botánicos. Maria Paz Martin Fierro, ed. Editoriales Andaluzes Unidas 1985.
 - Escritos científicos de José Celestino Mutis. Guillermo Hernández de Alba. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Bogotá: Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica 1983.
 - Flora de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Madrid: Ediciones de Cultura Hispánica 1954.
 - Viaje a Santa Fe. Marcelo Frías Núñez, ed. Madrid: Historia 16. (1991)
The standard author abbreviation Mutis is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.

His likeness is well known to Spaniards, because his image was used on the old banknotes of 2000 pesetas. This was the first in a series of banknotes commemorating Spain in America. On the reverse was a drawing of the Mutisia clematis flower, named in his honor.
  José Celestino Mutis Botanical Gardens, a park and center of scientific investigation, is named in his honor in Bogotá. It includes climate-controlled exhibits of the flora in all climate zones of Colombia. There is also an exhibit of 5,000 Colombian orchids, one of Colombia's most extensive.
  The official name of the town of Bahia Solano on Colombia's Pacific coast in the Department of Choco is Puerto Mutis, in honor of Jose Celestino Mutis. The airport there is Aeropuerto Jose Celestino Mutis, as well. This town is located north of the city of Buenaventura and north of the San Juan River, the largest river in South America to empty into the Pacific Ocean.

Other expeditions
The four expeditions authorized by King Charles III to the Spanish colonies were those of Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón to Peru and Chile (1777–88); Mutis to New Granada (1783–1808); Juan de Cuéllar to the Philippines (1786–97); and Martín Sessé y Lacasta to New Spain (1787–1803).

Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid
Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid (Spanish: Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid) is an 8 hectares (19.7684 acres) botanical garden in Madrid (Spain). The public entrance is located at Plaza de Murillo, next to the Prado Museum.

The garden was founded on October 17, 1755, by King Ferdinand VI, and installed in the Orchard of Migas Calientes, near what today is called Puerta de Hierro, on the banks of the Manzanares River. It contained more than 2,000 plants collected by José Quer y Martínez, botanist and surgeon.
  In 1774 King Charles III ordered the garden moved to its current location on the Paseo del Prado. This new site opened in 1781. Inside an area defined by wrought iron fencing, the design by architects Francesco Sabatini and Juan de Villanueva organized the garden into three tiered terraces, arranging plants according to the method of Linnaeus. Its mission was not only to exhibit plants, but also to teach botany, promote expeditions for the discovery of new plant species and classify them. There was a particular interest in the botany of Spain's colonial possessions. The garden was greatly augmented by a collection of 10,000 plants brought to Spain by Alessandro Malaspina in 1794.
  The Spanish War of Independence in 1808 caused the garden to be abandoned, but in 1857 director Mariano de la Paz Graëlls y de la Aguera revived it with a new greenhouse and refurbishment of the upper terrace. Under his leadership a zoo was created in the garden, but subsequently relocated to the Parque del Buen Retiro. Between 1880 and 1890 the garden suffered heavy losses, first losing 2 hectares (4.9 acres) to the Ministry of Agriculture in 1882, then losing 564 trees in 1886 to a cyclone.
  Since 1939 the garden has been dependent on the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and in 1942 was declared Artistic Garden. In 1974, after decades of hardship and neglect, the garden was closed to the public for restoration work to its original plan. It reopened in 1981.

Today's garden
Today's garden is divided into seven major outdoor sections and five greenhouses which allow the cultivation of species which are not suited to Madrid's Continental Mediterranean climate. Total collections include about 90,000 plants and flowers, and 1,500 trees.

 - Terraza de los Cuadros – collections of ornamental plants, medicinal, aromatic, endemic and orchard gathered around a small fountain. All are planted in box-edged plots. At its southwestern end is a Japanese garden.
 - Terraza de las Escuelas Botánicas – a taxonomic collection of plants, ordered phylogenetically and set within plots about 12 small fountains.
 - Terraza del Plano de la Flor – a diverse collection of trees and shrubs, as designed in the mid-nineteenth century in the romantic English style. It contains the Villanueva Pavilion, built in 1781 as a greenhouse, and a pond with bust of Carl Linnaeus.
  The garden's two greenhouses are divided into four rooms. The Graëlls greenhouse dates from the nineteenth century and exhibits tropical plants and bryophytes. The newer structure supports three climates: tropical, temperate, and desert.

The herbarium is the largest in Spain and now contains over a million specimens from around the world. The oldest material consists of plants collected during scientific expeditions undertaken in the 18th and 19th centuries.
  As at 2016 the online herbarium's databases currently contain detailed information about all the specimens in the algae, bryophyte, lichen and fungi collections.

Scientific publications
 - Annals of the Botanical Garden of Madrid: This is the magazine published by the Botanical Garden, which publishes papers on plant taxonomy and systematics and fungi and related fields such as biogeography, bioinformatics, conservation, ecophysiology, phylogeny, phylogeography, floral, functional morphology, nomenclature or plant relationships -animal, including works of synthesis and review. The magazine sends information about the new species published to be included in the databases W3TROPICOS (vascular plants, bryophytes), International Plant Names Index or Index Fungorum.
 - Flora Iberica: Publication of taxonomic research on vascular plants that grow wild in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands that was published 15 volumes of a total of 21 in 2010.
 - Flora Iberica Mycologica: a serial and aperiodic publication with this generic title published, numbered consecutively, the monographic synthesis as they are being edited, without following a systematic order preset. The work is presented in two columns, with texts in Spanish and English. Bring identification keys, descriptions, distribution, commentary, and bibliographic information. Most species are accompanied by an illustration (ink drawings in black and white).
 - Ruizía (Monographs of the Royal Botanical Gardens - Workbooks Flora Micológica Ibérica.
 - Flora Huayaquilensis is a large group of papers found by that detailed the expeditions of Juan José Tafalla Navascués (es), a Spaniard who was one of the first who traveled to South America and documenting the different plants with wonderful paintings and written descriptions. All of this work was in the archives and only published by Eduardo Estrella Aguirre after searching the Real Jardín Botánico in Madrid archives and finding the informaction that formed, Flora Huayaquilensis and finally the life work of Tafalla was published. Dr. Eduardo Estrella Aguirre also founded the Ecuador National Museum of Medicine.