Maldives 20 Rufiyaa Polymer Banknote 2015
Obverse: Underprint of aerial view of islands and reefs in Maldives; denomination as registration device; jet airplane taking off from Ibrahim Nasir International Airport (MLE); fisherman carrying skipjack tuna and yellowfin tuna; an image of the Cyprea Moneta (Cowry shell).
Reverse (Vertical): Traditional sail boat (Dhoni).
Colour of note: Purple - As purple is often associated with wealth, luxury and status, the colours in this note are used to represent the progress that the Maldivian economy has made throughout the years.
Face value: 20 Maldivian rufiyaa.
Theme: Industrial and economic progress.
Size: 150 x 70 mm.
Printer: De La Rue, London (England) - DLR.
Maldives New Family of Polymer Banknotes
Maldives Monetary Authority 2015 Issue (2016)
Maldives new currency series, called ”Ran dhiha faheh” (the golden five decades). “Ran dhiha faheh” currency series includes MVR 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and the brand new MVR 1000. The series also introduced MVR 5 as coins instead of the current cash note. The series was designed by local designer Abdulla Nashath.
Maldives central bank said “Ran dhiha faheh” series is printed on polymer paper and are state-of-the-art, impossible to counterfeit. Maldives Monetary authority (MMA) also said each note has been given a distinct topic and a representative colour for ease of use. The series as a whole attempts to encapsulate all the innate factors that define our country, and our ancestral identity, MMA said.
Ibrahim Nasir International Airport
Ibrahim Nasir International Airport (IATA: MLE, ICAO: VRMM), also known as Malé International Airport, previously known as Hulhulé Airport, is the main international airport in the Maldives. It is located on Hulhulé Island in the North Malé Atoll, nearby the capital island Malé. Today, the airport is well connected with major airports around the world, mostly serving as the main gateway into the Maldives for tourists. It is managed financially and administratively by an independent corporate entity known as Maldives Airports Company Limited (MACL).
The skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae. It is otherwise known as the aku, arctic bonito, mushmouth, oceanic bonito, striped tuna, or victor fish. It grows up to 1 m (3 ft) in length. It is a cosmopolitan pelagic fish found in tropical and warm-temperate waters. It is a very important species for fisheries.
It is a streamlined, fast-swimming pelagic fish, common in tropical waters throughout the world, where it inhabits surface waters in large shoals (up to 50,000 fish), feeding on fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, and molluscs. It is an important prey species for large pelagic fishes and sharks. It has no scales, except on the lateral line and the corselet (a band of large, thick scales forming a circle around the body behind the head). It commonly reaches fork lengths up to 80 cm (31 in) and a weight of 8–10 kg (18–22 lb). Its maximum fork length is 108 cm (43 in) and maximum weight is 34.5 kg (76 lb). Ageing skipjack tuna is difficult, and the estimates of its potential lifespan range between 8 and 12 years.
Skipjack tuna is a batch spawner. Spawning occurs year-round in equatorial waters, but it gets more seasonal further away from the equator. Fork length at first spawning is about 45 cm (18 in). It is also known for its potent smell.
Skipjack is the most fecund of the main commercial tunas, and its population is considered sustainable against its current consumption.
It is an important commercial and game fish, usually caught using purse seine nets, and is sold fresh, frozen, canned, dried, salted, and smoked. With reported landings of almost 2.6 million tonnes, it was second only to the Peruvian anchoveta as the world's most important capture fish species. Countries recording large amounts of skipjack catches include the Maldives, France, Spain, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia.
Skipjack tuna is used extensively in Japanese cuisine, where it is known as katsuo. Besides being eaten seared (katsuo tataki) and raw in sushi and sashimi, it is also smoked and dried to make katsuobushi, the central ingredient in dashi (a common Japanese fish stock). It is also a key ingredient in katsuo no shiokara. Skipjack is also integral to Maldivian cuisine.
The yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is a species of tuna found in pelagic waters of tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide.
The yellowfin tuna is among the larger tuna species, reaching weights over 180 kg (400 lb), but is significantly smaller than the Atlantic and Pacific bluefin tunas, which can reach over 450 kg (990 lb), and slightly smaller than the bigeye tuna and the southern bluefin tuna.
The second dorsal fin and the anal fin, as well as the finlets between those fins and the tail, are bright yellow, giving this fish its common name. The second dorsal and anal fins can be very long in mature specimens, reaching almost as far back as the tail and giving the appearance of sickles or scimitars. The pectoral fins are also longer than the related bluefin tuna, but not as long as those of the albacore. The main body is a very dark metallic blue, changing to silver on the belly, which has about 20 vertical lines.
Reported sizes in the literature have ranged as high as 2.4 m (94 in) in length and 200 kg (440 lb) in weight. The International Game Fish Association (IGFA) record for this species stands at 176 kg (388 lb)for a fish caught in 1977 near San Benedicto Island in the Pacific waters of Mexico. In 2010, a 184-kg yellowfin was caught off the tip of Mexico's Baja Peninsula, 2.2-metre (87 in) long with a girth of 1.5 m (59 in). The catch is still pending verification by the IGFA. In 2012, a fisherman in Baja California caught a 193-kg yellowfin. If the catch is confirmed by the IGFA, the fisherman will receive a prize of $1 million.
Modern commercial fisheries catch yellowfin tuna with encircling nets (purse seines), and by industrial longlines. In 2010, 558,761 metric tons of yellowfin tuna were caught in the western and central Pacific Ocean.
Dhoni or Doni is a multi-purpose sailboat with a motor or lateen sails that is used in the Maldives. It is handcrafted and its use within the multi-island nation has been very important. A dhoni resembles a dhow, a traditional Arab sailing vessel.
The traditional dhoni is one of the oldest known sea vessels in the Maldives. Many of these traditional sailing vessels were, of necessity, built using coconut palm timber. The sailing dhoni was used in earlier days by Maldivian fishermen. During the industrial revolution many fisherman changed to a mechanized dhoni.
The Tamil, Kannada and Konkani word for a small boat is doni and the Malayalam word for a small boat is Thoni, perhaps in keeping with the tradelinks between Arabs and the konkani people in Goa and other port cities in Konkan and Coastal South West India.
The islands of the Maldives have an extensive fishing fleet built domestically, each of which carries eight to twelve persons. Nearly all of these are variants of the dhoni, a plank-built craft traditionally built with coconut timber, although imported wood from Southeast Asia is increasingly used. Originally sailing craft, nowadays these boats are usually fitted with motors. The main site for building dhonis is in Alifushi in Raa Atoll. Dhoni boat building is a traditional craft in the Maldives and young apprentices are trained by skilled craftsmen. Boats crafted from timber take 60 days to complete.
Dhonis used to be built without plans. The master carpenter took measurements and gave instructions to the carpenters.
Contemporary dhonis are often built using fibreglass. Dhonis fitted with diesel engines are extensively used on resort islands for scuba diving purposes, their low freeboard being ideal for this activity.
Based on a US$3.2 million loan from the International Development Association (IDA), most of the boats were mechanized in the course of the 1980s. Although the addition of motors increased fuel costs, it resulted in a doubling of the fishing catch between 1982 and 1985. Moreover, the 1992 catch of 82,000 tons set a record; for example, in 1987 the catch was 56,900 tons.
In 1995 there were 1674 registered fishing vessels in the Maldives. Of these, 1407 were motorised pole and line craft (masdhoni) for tuna fishing in coastal waters, five were sailing masdhoni, 48 were mechanised vadhudhoni, 209 were sailing vadhudhoni and 5 were row boats used for trawling in reef waters.