Spain 200 Pesetas banknote 1980 Leopoldo Alas

Spain Banknotes 200 Pesetas banknote 1980 Leopoldo Alas
Spain Money Currency 200 Pesetas banknote 1980 Asturias Oak - Asturian royalty
Spain Banknotes 200 Pesetas banknote 1980 Leopoldo Alas
Bank of Spain - Banco de España

Obverse: Portrait of Leopoldo García-Alas y Ureña "Clarín" (1852 - 1901) wearing spectacles. Victory Cross at center (Victory Cross depicted on the Coat of arms of Asturias). Crowned Royal Spanish coat of arms - Escudo de España at upper right.
Reverse: Asturias Oak, symbol of the Asturian royalty. Handwritten fragment from author's realist novel "La Regenta" ("The Regent's Wife"): "...el Confín, una montaña que escondía sus crestas en las nubes y caía a pico sobre valles ocultos...". ("...the Outback, a mountain that hid their peaks in clouds and fell steeply to hidden valleys...").
Watermark: Leopoldo Alas "Clarín".
Signatures: Don José Ramón Álvarez Rendueles (Governor - El Gobernador, Mar. 1978 - Jul. 1984);
(The Auditor - El Interventor); (Cashier - El Cajero).
Dominant colours: Brown and orange.
Security thread: Solid, narrow, yellow.
Date of Issue: 16 September 1980 (circulated from 1984). Date of withdrawal: 1992.
Printer: Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre, Madrid.

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Leopoldo Alas
Leopoldo García-Alas y Ureña (25 April 1852 – 13 June 1901), also known as Clarín, was an Spanish realist novelist born in Zamora. He died in Oviedo.
   Alas spent his childhood living in León and Guadalajara, until he moved to Oviedo in 1865. There he studied Bachillerato (high school) and began his law studies. He lived in Madrid from 1871 to 1878, where he began his career as a journalist (adopting the pen-name "Clarín" in 1875) and he graduated with the thesis El Derecho y la Moralidad (Law and Morality) in 1878. He taught in Zaragoza from 1882 to 1883. In 1883 he returned to Oviedo to take up a position as professor of Roman law.
   Above all, Clarín is the author of La Regenta, his masterpiece and one of the best novels of the 19th century. It is a long work, similar to Flaubert's Madame Bovary, one of its influences. Other influences included Naturalism and Krausism, a philosophical current which promoted the cultural and ethical regeneration of Spain.
   La Regenta is special for its great wealth of characters and secondary stories, while the main character's description is left slightly unfocused and vague. On the other hand, the downfall of the provincial lady has place amidst two very diverse suitors: the most handsome man in the city and the cathedral's priest. The depiction of this priest is a key part of the book.
   For the description of the provincial atmosphere and the city's collective life, Clarín used techniques such as the internal monologue or the free indirect style, which makes the story be narrated by the characters themselves and allows the reader to penetrate in their intimacy.
   In 1890, he published a new novel, Su único hijo. Even though most critics consider it as a lesser novel in comparison with La Regenta, it is equal to the former in the skill with which the technical resources are used. Su único hijo was originally meant to be the introduction to a trilogy, but aside from an outline and a few fragments of the two sequels, Su único hijo was Clarín's last full-length novel.
   Apart from these works, Clarín is also the author of magnificent stories and of a large number of journalistic articles. He also wrote an essay, "La Literatura en 1881" (1882), in collaboration with Armando Palacio Valdés.
   Leopoldo Alas remains a rather enigmatic figure in the Spanish literary world, leaving a legacy that encouraged the search for God and humanism simultaneously. This aberrant confluence has facilitated the presence of various interpretations regarding the author's writings, most noticeably of his masterpiece, La Regenta.

Victory Cross
The Victory Cross (Asturian and Spanish: Cruz de la Victoria) is an early 10th century Asturian Christian ornamented processional cross, which was, as an inscription says, made in 908 in the Castle of Gauzón (Raices Viejo, Castrillon, Asturias, Spain). It is a crux gemmata or jewelled cross, given by King Alfonso III of Asturias, who reigned from 848 to 910, to Cathedral of San Salvador of Oviedo (Asturias, Spain). According to the legend, the wooden core was carried by King Pelagius of Asturias at the Battle of Covadonga. The old oak wooden cross was covered with gold and precious stones in 908, under King Alfonso III and donated to the dean of the Cathedral of San Salvador (Oviedo), where it still is today. However, there is no historical evidence that Pelayo used exactly this same cross.
  Since December 1990, the flag of modern Principality of Asturias bears the Victory Cross offset towards the hoist.