Netherlands 10 Gulden Banknote 1953

Netherlands Banknotes 10 Gulden Banknote 1953 Hugo Grotius
Netherlands Banknotes Dutch guilder 10 Gulden note 1953
Netherlands Banknotes 10 Gulden Banknote 1953 Hugo Grotius
The Dutch Bank - De Nederlandsche Bank

Obverse: Effigy of the Dutch jurist Hugo de Groot or Hugo Grotius (1583 - 1645). Scales and sword of justice. Grapevine. Draconic creature element design.
Reverse: Stylised scales of justice. Sailing ships. Earth globe.
Watermark: Grapevine. Artist: J.F. Doeve (sketch).
Signatures: A.M. de Jong (Secretaris); W.M. Holtrop (President).
Printer: Joh. Enschede En Zonen.
Colours: Blue, brown, green, red and tan.
Date and place of issue: Amsterdam, 23 March 1953.
Issuer: De Nederlandsche Bank.
Dimensions: 147 x 82 mm

Texts: De Nederlandsche Bank. Tien Gulden. Ten Guilders. Ten Florin. Wetboek van Strafrecht Artikel 208. Hij die Muntspeciƫn of Munt- of Bankbiljetten namaakt of vervalscht, met het Oogmerk om die Muntspeciƫn of Munt- of Bankbiljetten als echt en onvervalscht uit te geven of te doen uitgeven, wordt gestraft met Gevangenisstraf van ten hoogste negen jaren. Wetboek van Strafrecht Artikel 208.

Banknotes of the Dutch guilder
1953-1956 Issue

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Hugo de Groot or Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot, Hugo Grocio or Hugo de Groot, was a jurist in the Dutch Republic. With Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili he laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. He was also a philosopher, theologian, Christian apologist, playwright, historiographer, poet, statesman and diplomat. A teenage intellectual prodigy, for his involvement in the intra-Calvinist disputes of the Dutch Republic he was imprisoned and then escaped hidden appropriately in a chest of books. He wrote most of his major works in exile in France.
   In 1609, Grotius wrote one of the most important international legal doctrines regarding the seas and oceans – Mare Liberum, a Latin title that translates to "the freedom of the seas". It is said to be "the first, and classic, exposition of the doctrine of the freedom of the seas" which has been the essence and backbone of the modern law of the sea. It is generally assumed that Grotius first propounded the principle of freedom of the seas, although all countries in the Indian Ocean and other Asian seas accepted the right of unobstructed navigation long before Grotius wrote his De Jure Praedae (On the Law of Spoils) in the year of 1604. Additionally, 16th century Spanish theologian Francisco de Vitoria had postulated the idea of freedom of the seas in a more rudimentary fashion under the principles of jus gentium. Grotius's notion of the freedom of the seas would persist until the mid-twentieth century, and it continues to be applied even to this day for much of the high seas, though the application of the concept and the scope of its reach is changing.
   Grotius's influence on international law is paramount. International legal scholars like Richard Falk and Michael Scharf talk of the concept of "Grotian Moment", a term (coined by Richard A. Falk in 1985) that denotes a paradigm-shifting development in which new rules and doctrines of customary international law emerge with unusual rapidity and acceptance. The publication of De jure belli ac pacis (On the Laws of War and Peace) by Hugo Grotius in 1625 had marked the emergence of international law as an "autonomous legal science". Grotius' truly distinctive contribution to jurisprudence and philosophy of law (international law or law of nations in particular) was that he "secularized" natural law. Grotius had divorced natural law from theology and religion by grounding it solely in the social nature and natural reason of man. When Grotius, considered by many to be the founder of modern natural law theory (or secular natural law), said that natural law would retain its validity "even if God did not exist" (etiamsi daremus non esse Deum), he was making a clear break with the classical tradition of natural law. Adam Smith — in lectures delivered in 1762 on the subject of moral philosophy and the law of nations — said that: "Jurisprudence is that science which inquires into the general principles which ought to be the foundation of laws of all nations. Grotius seems to have been the first who attempted to give the world anything like a regular system of natural jurisprudence, and his treatise, 'On the Laws of War and Peace', with all its imperfections, is perhaps at this day the most complete work on this subject."
   The Grotian conception of international society became the most distinctive characteristic of the internationalist (or rationalist) tradition in international relations. This is why it is also very often called the 'Grotian tradition'. According to it international politics is taking place within international society in which states are bound not only by rules of prudence or expediency but also of morality and law. It could be argued though that Hugo Grotius was not the first one to formulate the international society doctrine. But Grotius was the first one to expressely and clearly define the idea of one society of states, governed not by force or warfare but by actual laws and mutual agreement to enforce those laws. As Hedley Bull (Hugo Grotius and International Relations, 1992) declared: "The idea of international society which Grotius propounded was given concrete expression in the Peace of Westphalia, and Grotius may be considered the intellectual father of this first general peace settlement of modern times."
   Additionally, his contributions to Arminian theology provided the seeds for later Arminian-based movements, such as Methodism and Pentecostalism and he is acknowledged as a significant figure in the Arminianism-Calvinism debate. Because of his theological underpinning of free trade, he is also considered an "economic theologist".