Brazil banknotes 2 Mil Reis Zella banknote of 1900

World paper money Brazilian Currency Mil Reis american banknote bill
Brazilian Currency 2 Mil Reis banknote - Zella
Cedula Brasil Mil Reis billetes
Cedula Brasil Dois Mil Reis
Brazil banknotes 2 Mil Reis  Zella banknote 1900 issued by the Tesouro Nacional
Brazilian banknotes, Cédulas Brasileiras, Brazilian paper money, Brazilian bank notes, Brazil banknotes, Brazil paper money, Brazil bank notes.

Obverse: "Zella" engraving Sukeichi Oyama, from a portrait authored by Conrad Kiesel called "Jeune Espagnole" or "Saudade".
Reverse: Statue of Minerva from Vatican Museum, Rome.
Printed by American Bank Note Company, New York.
A surprising story

In 1860, a young Mato Grosso only 12 years, undertook a trip to her hometown of Cuiabá, the capital of then until the Empire of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. He left his studies to conduct, as would be expected of a child of the local oligarchy. Followed in mule through the wilderness, crossing rivers to swim and all the rigors of a similar trip at a time that Brazil's interior was still covered with forests. The tour lasts about three months. The name of this young man? Joaquim Duarte Murtinho (1848 - 1911).
After preliminary studies, he enrolled at the Ecole Polytechnique, however, did not become an engineer, but one of the most sought homeopathic physicians from Rio de Janeiro.
With the change of regime entered politics, was Senator of the Republic (1890-1896, 1903-1906 and 1907 to 1911) and Minister of Finance Campos Salles (1898-1902).
It was one of the wealthiest and most influential men of his time, convinced bachelor, never came to a family.
In politics made many enemies, among them Rep. Fausto Cardoso Sergipe.
Entering the field of hypotheses, we describe what probably happened in the case, said the scandal, which became famous at the time and still provokes discussions within the history and numismatics, see:
 Around 1890-92, then with Joaquim Murtinho forties, but already occupying the position of Senator of the Republic instructed the journalist Artur Guarana, which made the cover of economic affairs for The Paiz, to assist you in looking for a young man to serve as a model for future Treasury banknote of 2 mil reis.
The banknote of 2 mil reis outstanding season (8th estampa) had been seized of the Empire, replacing the effigy of Dom Pedro II by Allegory of Justice.
Now it was intended to replace the stamp and for that, looking up an image of a beautiful young girl, the very Brazilian kind, to represent the Republic.
The journalist made a search and found the photo studio Guimarães, set on the corner of Assembly with Gonçalves Dias, a photograph of a young woman known wheels and literary journalists from Sao Paulo, leaving his real name secret, referring to it as "Sinhazinha". She lived with her mother and worked with young poets and prose writers, to the People's Daily and other literary journals little predicament.
This young lady was presented to Joaquim Murtinho to model the banknote Republic. She traveled to Rio de Janeiro and then to Europe. The girl's romantic involvement with Joaquim Murtinho seems to have been evident in the unfolding of these events.
In Europe, the young, after passing through Lisbon and probably Paris, he went to Vienna, where he was presented to the painter Conrad Kiesel (1846-1921) so that it could make pictures that would be used in the forthcoming banknote.
The painter made several portraits, including "Dolores" and "Saudade" which were then forwarded to the United States, influenced by the Minister of Finance, where the company American Bank Note Company (ABNCo.), proceed to the realization of the prints needed to the preparation of the banknotes.
The ABNCo instructed the Japanese engraver Suekichi Oyama (1858-1922), who was an employee of the company (1891-1899), making the prints. He had at least two pictures that would be used for the manufacture of banknotes, one named "Zella" (1893), obtained from the portrait authored by Conrad Kiesel, called "Saudade," and another, "Mima" (1894) obtained from the picture named "Dolores", the same painter.
As was customary in ABNCo., They used the engraving "Zella", first, on three occasions, notes $ 20 in 1897 (PS 627) Bank of Nova Scotia (Province of Nova Scotia - Canada) at 20 pesos note 1898 (PS 180) of El Banco de Concepción (Chile) and 100 pesos note, also 1898 (PS 199) of El Banco de Coahuila (Mexico).
In 1900, finally, the engraving "Zella" was used on the Brazilian banknote (2000 reis 1900, the 9th estampa Treasury) and ended up causing a great furor in the House of Representatives, and the Finance Minister accused of reproducing the figure of a "whore" in state monies.

Chasing the truth

We made contact with this issue some years ago through the book of F. Saints Trigueiros Money in Brazil, whose first edition is from 1966 and two journals, one of the SNB (No. 50 of 1976) and one of SFN João Pessoa (No. 68 of 2001).
However, let's look at this issue from the start.

The charge in the House

At its meeting on 6 September 1900, Mr Fausto Cardoso Sergipe, in language somewhat farfetched, reported:

"(...) But the speaker attacked the Minister of Finance, since the first day, he spoke to the last, and S. Ex said the speaker threw him to the language muleteer, with unusual words, injuring his unblemished reputation, etc.., Etc..
Shall the language is one in which muleteer said Treasury notes bear as a symbol of the Republic portraits of prostitutes?
It bears repeating, as I said when the speaker and consists of the Annals, that's a fact.
But to report a fact that order is downgrading Parliament, is language muleteer?
No. The fact demeans who practiced it and not to those who denounced him. And instead of yells that arose, what was to be done was to show that the Minister of Finance had not really put in Treasury bills such portraits.
This was not done, or can do, because here's a note contained in one of the most popular sluts in Federal Capital: Mrs Prates. (The speaker shows a Treasury note, which says it printed this picture.).
Who can deny that this figure here is not so well known is this woman?
But say, "you must not say, you must save a disgrace to our country.".
Mr. Benedicto de Souza - But you yourself can ensure that the Minister was told that the stamp there?
Mr. Fausto Cardoso - Enough. "(Brazil Congress. Proceedings of the House of Representatives. V.5, Rio de Janeiro, September 6, 1900, p.144-145).

Mr Fausto Fragoso was declared political enemy of the then Finance Minister Joaquim Murtinho, here is an excerpt from his speech of September 4, 1900:

"Mr. President, despite the tired mind and body in ruins, still play me the commitment that, in the defense of national interests, I took for myself, to show the light of further evidence that the teaching and administrative conduct of Mr. Minister of Finance are contrary to law, morals, Laws, to large public conveniences. "(Idem, September 4, 1900, p.63)

 Rui Barbosa had even entered the discussion, saying "the ignoble be authentic corpus delicti" adding that there was nothing in effigy this woman who does not appoint a Queen's obscene world.

The testimony of historiography

In 1990, the historian José Murilo de Carvalho in the work The Formation of Souls: The Imaginary Republic of Brazil, in the part that relates to the use of female allegory representing the Republic, gives us:

"The most scandalous demoralization of the Republic through the female representation came from a government minister Campos Sales. In 1900, Rep. Fausto Cardoso denounced in the House Finance Minister, Joaquim Murtinho for being" a man who commands play in Treasury notes, moneys in the State, as a symbol of the Republic, the portrait of harlots. complaint Monday that caused uproar in the House and led to suspension of the session, but that was not contested, the picture would be a Mrs. Prates, one of the capital's most recognizable whores. According to other versions, would Laurinda Santos Lobo, niece and lover Murtinho. On the reverse of the note, the Republic was represented by a classic Athena, helmet, shield and spear. A note is a summary precious. A Republic, if not represented by abstraction, classical or romantic, just found her face in the woman's corrupted version was a Respublica, in the sense that the prostitute was a public woman. "(In, Formation of Souls: The imaginary Republic of Brazil. José Murilo de Carvalho. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1990, p.88/89).

In 1996, the historian Fernando Antonio Faria, resuming work on the same subject Archive of Shadows: The privatization of the Brazilian state in the early years of the First Republic, commented:
"Promiscuous relations between business and political force was the inverted reflection of a world view incapable of ordering and distinguish the boundaries of the field of public private in a society where even the bourgeois order encountered strong resistance to its implementation. Murtinho belonged to a generation that witnessed the universalization of money as a fundamental value of the company. His whole existence was focused on wealth accumulation. Difficult to identify some act of his adult life he had not behind it the prospect of material gain. His contact with the world was driven by money and its evaluation was preceded by a dollar sign. As the public money always had the same color and shape of private money, the confusion between these two instances was helpless on his way to see what surrounded him. Model just say that was just the case of banknote Rs. 2 $ 000. Again will use two versions to expose the episode: a review and justifying another. José Murilo de Carvalho, in his work on The Formation of Imaginary Republic of Brazil, in part designed to study the use of female allegory to represent the Republic, Joaquim Murtinho pointed as responsible for the "most outrageous example of demoralization of the Republic through women's representation"  The historian refers to the complaint made by ardent follower of Herbert Spencer, Mr Fausto Cardoso, that the finance minister Joaquim Murtinho was "a man who commands play in Treasury notes, moneys in the State as a symbol of the Republic, the portrait of harlots "
The female figure printed on the Rs. 2 $ 000 banknote in 1900, according to the parliamentary Sergipe was attributed to Mrs Prates, prostitute renowned in Rio de Janeiro. Affirmation bombastic, then display the banknote, despite having caused the suspension of the session of the Chamber of Deputies, has not been refuted. The image of the bad example that provoked such indignation, according to others, was not of that lady, but Laurinda Santos Lobo, niece of bachelor and lover of Santa Teresa. Historian miner concluded that the Republic "just found her face in the woman's version corrupted, was a res publica, in the sense that the prostitute was a public woman ".
The same case narrated, almost half a century after the journalist was at Jornal do Commercio, who signed his articles with the initials "JL", assumed distinct features. The writer reproduced in his column that kept the dialogue last week with the traditional street Murtinho Juvenal Dias Gonçalves, in the city center of Rio de Janeiro, published in that journal during the week to commemorate the centenary of the birth of Brazilian illustrated. This version, Minister of Finance on the issue of paper money in 1900, decided to decorate the new note of Rs. 2 $ 000 with a feminine stamp young, beautiful and very Brazilian kind. For both instructed the journalist Artur Guaraná, who covered matters of economics for The Paiz, to undertake the work.
After survey by journalist photographic studio in Guimarães, set on the corner of Assembly with Gonçalves Dias, spotted the photograph of a girl known literary and journalistic wheels in the capital of São Paulo, in the period 1895-1898, whose real name was omitted By "JL", referring to it as "Sinhazinha". The young lady lived with his mother and worked with young poets and prose writers, to the People's Daily and other literary journals little predicament. The author, at any time, established what was the source from which it drew its sustenance. Suddenly, "Missy" traveled to Rio de Janeiro and after times to Europe, returning to Brazilian capital due to severe illness he had contracted in Lisbon. Had deceased in limbo. Another gap left by the writer was the fate of the girl's mother.
The journalist noted that soon after entering the new banknote in circulation, rose a huge wave of outrage that of Rio de Janeiro, has spread to the rest of the country, with the conviction that abuse of power. The effigy would be a person who Murtinho "lavished your favors in return those who the lady did not regateava" . printing With all this in its formulation and the slippery characteristic of his writing, the statement made in 1948 not clashed with the interpellation made by Fausto Cardoso in the House of Representatives in 1900, and rescued by José Murilo de Carvalho in 1990.
The Spencerian convinced, of course, could never imagine that her decision would cause such a stir, even earning the epithet scandal. Now, for the bachelor of Santa Teresa all the money came from and how the money returned. Had dedicated his entire life to the work of amassing the vile metal, and only through him could communicate with his contemporaries, even if it is a matter so intimate. In the present case, he was arrested in his own trap, armed at the intersection between public and private. "(In, File Shadows: The privatization of the Brazilian state in the early years of the First Republic. Antonio Fernando Faria. Rio de Janeiro, Sette Letters, c.1996, p.59-62).

We believe that this latest version contained in the Jornal do Commercio is the closest to reality, which is why we enter the first part of this matter, as the most likely of these events.

The currency in circulation in 1900

During the Empire period 23 banknotes issued into circulation by the National Treasury and printed by the American Bank Note Company, New York (ABNCo.). The first banknotes printed by this company for the National Treasury were issued in 1869 in denominations of 5 $ 000 reis (7th Estampa) and 10 $ 000 reis (6th Estampa).
Another company that prints banknotes for the National Treasury, the British Perkins, Bacon & Peth (and its successors), this since 1835.
23 of those banknotes ABNCo, 20 remained outstanding after the fall of the Empire (all with the effigy of Emperor Dom Pedro II), with the latter only lost value in 1922 (the year of the Centenary of Independence).
Emissions of the Republic banknotes began in 1890, with four values, 2 $ 000, 5 $ 000 10 $ 000, 20 $ 000 reis and tagged, seized the Empire, replacing the effigy of Emperor symbols for symbols of Republicans. The same happened in 1891 with the issuance of 1 $ 000 reis banknote in which we have the Imperial Palace (now the Imperial Museum) replacing the effigy of D. Pedro II.
The first banknote "own" of the Republican era would issued only in 1892, banknote of 100 $ 000 reis, with the effigy of the Republic on the obverse, bearing the Phrygian cap. All these notes were printed by ABNCo.
Thus, in 1899 and the first months of 1900, had 20 banknotes of the Empire that continued to circulate, 5 to print banknotes that had seized the Empire (with adaptation of republican symbols or replacing the image of the Emperor) and 7 new prints Republic, comprising 32 prints, all printed by ABNCo.
The 2 $ 000 Reis banknote of the 9th pattern (object of this matter) came to replace the 2 $ 000 reis the 8th pattern, which had been seized of the Empire.
In 1900, we would still issuing other two values of 20 and 50 thousands reis respectively the 9th and 8th Estampa notes, printed by Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited (BWC), London. This company was acquired by ABNCo. In 1903 and maintained as autonomous subsidiary until 1986 when it was sold to De La Rue.

The American Bank Note Company (ABNCo.)

Company created by Robert Scot in 1795 and consolidated in 1856/58. The company has produced over the years, in addition to banknotes, postage stamps, stock certificates, travelers checks, passports, food stamps and other security documents.
The American Bank Note Company was one of the largest printing companies in the world security roles, perhaps the biggest. Among the competitors can cite the English Thomas La Rue & Company (TDLR), today, only De La Rue.
The company produced banknote up in the 80s. His building in Manhattan (70 Broad Street) that was built between 1907/1908 in neoclassical style was sold to real estate investors in 1984. The old firm equipment, such as standard banknotes (specimens), tests, essays and even printing plates, began to be auctioned from 1993 and can still be found today.
The company still exists, now with new name American Banknote Corporation (ABnote group) and always in the field of security documents.
The first order for Brazil was done by American Bank Note Company in 1857. Banknotes of "Caixa Matriz do Banco do Brasil" (1853-1889). The first banknotes were held in 1869, 5 and 10 thousand reis, showing the effigy of D. Peter II, still young, and the latest in 1966, of 10,000 cruzeiros banknote, with Alberto Santos Dumont.
Therefore, ABNCo. banknotes was supplied to Brazil from 1857 to 1966 (109 years ), a more than century.
In the design of the banknotes, the company used frequently, the reasons for their recorders developed in more than one banknote and for different countries.
However, most of the time these issues were in line with the national culture and history. There are a few scattered cases in which this rule was not observed.

The engraver Sukeichi Oyama (1858-1922)

Sukeichi Oyama was born in Shimo arada (district Kagoschima) in Japan to Tokyo was a teenager and in 1875 he joined the School of Takashima (today National University of Yokohama) to learn English.
Due to her good grades was selected to study in the United States, going there two years. After he returned to Japan he was hired by the Department of Printing, Ministry of Finance, which was established in 1871.
In 1885, with nine years of experience, he was sent to America to learn drawing and engraving bank notes, the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP).
In 1890, he returned to Japan for a short period in 1891 and returned to the United States where he was hired by ABNCo. (This time located on Trinity Place in the Financial District of Manhattan) as engraver.
During the 1891 to 1899 worked as an engraver in ABNCo. This is the period that the interest in his career.
In 1900 he returned to the Department of Printing in Japan, where he made the engraving a portrait of Katamari Fujiwara for 100 yens banknote.
He rose to head of that department and was one of the introducers of Western style in Japan before he died in 1922.

The engraving "Zella", as we saw, was used for at least five opportunities, see:

$ 20 dollars in 1897 (PS 627) Bank of Nova Scotia (Province of Nova Scotia - Canada).
20 pesos, 1898 (PS 180) of El Banco de Concepción (Chile).
100 pesos in 1898 (PS 199) of El Banco de Coahuila (Mexico).
2000 reis 1900, (P.11; R 082) 9th estampa Treasury (Brazil)
2000 reis 1918, (P.13; R084) 11th estampa Treasury (Brazil)

F. Saints Trigueiros addresses the subject in the chapter on "Characteristics of Money" under the heading "EFFIGY", see:

"In 1900, the National Treasury (NT), put in circulation a banknote of 2 mil reis the 9th estampa, printed by the American Bank Note Co with medallion bearing the portrait of a beautiful woman. Many people in the streets began to comment archly that the woman which pictured on 2000 reis banknote was the mistress of the Minister of Finance Joaquim Murtinho. In the Chamber of Deputies Joaquim Murtinho was accused that the image of the Republic will represent one famous prostitute and in the Federal Capital was a huge scandal. The governing MPs defended the minister saying he was completely unaware of the choice of the type that was representative of the Republic of initiative Mint. The TN rightly claimed that the image was a detail from "Saudade" by Austrian painter Conrad Kiesel. Soon the rumor that the government had commissioned an artist to paint the picture of the famous woman to disguise his embarrassment. The TN used the same image in 1918 also in note 2 mil reis, 11th estampa, changing only the colors.
Joaquim Murtinho, the linchpin of this whole story was later honored by TN. His image adorns 2 mil reis banknotes issued in 1920, 1921 and 1923.